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Greek Culture

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Greek Culture

Famous greek Lifestyle is one of the most ancient countries. It has developed over Many hundreds of years. It confirms its root base in the Mycenaean and Minoan people. The Roman, the Byzantine and the Ottoman powers have experienced a significant influence on the customs of Portugal.

Greeks are very pleased of their customs and have a look at their customs like a manifestation of their nationality and race. Their art, faith, show up, audio and the Famous greek food create the loaded customs of Portugal. The Famous greek weightloss routine is characterised by many foods and wines.

Greek Art

Remains of historical Famous greek structure happens to the type of information. The Famous greek structure of today follows provide day styles. Their operate was valued for many years. Lacking proper maintenance, the operate faded after fourth hundred years A.D. Lots of the standard Famous greek houses have been damaged due to conflicts and earthquakes. Parthenon is early forehead designed for the Famous greek Goddess Athena, who is thought to be to protect Portugal. The Parthenon is a very important remaining forehead of Portugal. The Greeks used ceramic in their existence. Steel boats created by the Greeks laid the foundation of brown operating technique. The Famous greek money today obtain their styles from those of the common times. Panel and wall operate were on the list of famous phrases of art with theon theusing thebecause of the Greeks. Famous greek figurines often made their Gods and Actresses. Famous greek art has encouraged artists of several countries around the globe.

The ancient Greeks didn’t in general abandon fancy burial plot goods, apart from a coin within the hand to pay Charon, the ferryman to Hades, and pottery; however the epitaphios or memorial oration (that epitaph comes) was regarded as crucial, and animal forfeit were created.

People that could pay for them constructed diamond ancient monuments, that is one of the functions of kouros figurines within the Ancient time before about 500 BCE. These were not intended as images, but during the Hellenistic time genuine portraiture with the approved were introduced and family communities were often shown in bas-relief on ancient monuments, usually encased by an design frame.

The rooms of burial plot compartments were often displayed in fresco, although few examples have made it in nearly as excellent for the reason that Tomb of the Scuba diver from southern Italia. Almost the only remaining displayed images within the established Famous greek custom are discovered in The red sea rather than Portugal.

The Fayum mummy images, from your end of the established time, were symbol people, in a Graeco-Roman style, connected to mummies.

Early Famous greek burials were frequently marked above ground by a big bit of ceramic, and stays were also hidden in urns. Pottery kept used substantially within tombs and plots through the established time. The larnax is a little coffin or ash-chest, usually of designed clay-based.

The two-handled loutrophoros was primarily associated with marriage ceremony, as it was used to carry water for the wedding bath. However, it had been also placed in the tombs from the single, “presumably to develop up in some way for which they had skipped in day-to-day life.”

The one-handled lekythos had many family uses, but outside the family its major use was for design of tombs. Moments of a nice to the underworld of Hades were often displayed on these, with the dead shown beside Hermes, Charon or both – though usually only with Charon.

Small ceramic options are often discovered, although it is challenging to decide if these were created for putting in tombs; when it comes to the Hellenistic Tanagra options this seems most likely not the scenario. But carpet is more often discovered around the edges of the Famous greek community, as in the elegant Macedonian tombs of Vergina, or in the nearby countries like those of Thrace or the Scythians.

Greek Religion

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Greek Religion

A well-known of Greece is created of Traditional Followers. The rest of it indicates Muslims, Roman Catholics and the Jews. Famous Greeks were very spiritual persons. They worshiped Gods as varieties of energy and attractiveness. Mostly, the Greeks worshiped the big off white and gold sculpture of Zeus at Olympia. (Zeus is the King from the Gods, the Leader of Position Olympus and the God of the Sky and Magic.) They also worshiped the pair of deities like Demeter, Goddess of Materials & Libido, and her little young lady, Persephone.The ancient Greeks were a greatly spiritual persons. They worshipped many gods whom they thought made an appearance in human form but were giving with superhuman energy and beautiful attractiveness.

The Iliad and also the Journey, our first remaining types of Famous greek materials, record males communications with various gods and goddesses whose people and designs went through little change in the decades that followed.

Although sanctuaries recognized more than a single god, usually one deity such as Zeus at Olympia or a closely linked pair of deities like Demeter and her little young lady Persephone at Eleusis based the conspiracy spot.Elsewhere within the disciplines, various displayed scenes on floral vases, and diamond, clay-based and brown figurines express the main gods and goddesses.

The deities were shown either on their own or perhaps in common fabricated situations in which they connect to humankind and many modest deities, demi-gods and renowned people.

The Dance and Music of Greece

Dance was very important to the standard Greeks. They thought that show up improved both emotional and health. Rarely did women of all ages and men show up together. Some dances were danced by men among others by women of all ages.
There were a lot more than 200 ancient Famous greek dances; comic dances, warlike dances, dances for sports athletes and for spiritual praise, plus dances for marriage ceremony, memorials, and actions.
Dance was combined with audio performed on lyres, flute glasses, and a a wide variety of drums devices such as tambourines, cymbals and castanet

The show up customs of Portugal commenced in the Minoan time. Dance was thought growing mental and actual well-being and was hence designed into their exercising system. Syrtos, a group of people dances of ancient beginning and Mantilia of the Byzantine time, were among the well-known Byzantine dances in ancient Portugal. Greeks of the provide times still perform these varieties of show up. The guitar and flute were a few of the musical technology devices to start in the Byzantine time. Today, people show up is a fundamental element of the lifestyle of the frequent man. Dance varieties a piece of many actions and good occasions. Sequence devices like Lyre were visible throughout the established times. The favorite device of Portugal is the bouzouki, a picked string device. Famous greek audio is very pleased to handle the brands of many well-known performers like Alypius, a audio home of ancient Portugal and also the artist, songwriter and artist Christos Dantis of the past several years.

The Individuals of Greece

The Individuals of Greece

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In older times, men difficult away from home. When at home, they difficult on areas or were involved in tracking and going. Famous Greeks formulated plants spinning and cleansing techniques to pay for the pregnancy of land. Women led a somewhat restrained day-to-day life in the the past. Their job was to look after their family and youngsters. Captivity won in the standard Famous greek many. The apparel of the Greeks was loose and fancy. Outfits were often not made together. The apparel for that men and also women of all ages was not completely different. Clothing was often created out of made of woll or page.

With the different of ancient Sparta, Famous greek women of all ages had very limited independence outside the home. They could go to marriage ceremony, memorials, some spiritual gatherings, and could check out women buddies for brief intervals. In their home, Famous greek women of all ages were in control. Their job was to run the home and also to bear youngsters.

Most Famous greek women of all ages did not do cleaning themselves. Most Famous greek people had slaves. Female slaves baked, washed, and difficult in the areas. Men slaves seen the door, to develop sure no one came in when the man of the home was away, aside from women buddies, and were as instructors towards the fresh male youngsters. Spouse and youngsters weren’t granted to watch the Olympic Video game titles as the contributors in the games did not wear apparel. Chariot racing was the only game women of all ages could win, and only then if they had the mount. If that mount won, they received the reward.

The ancient Greeks thought to be their youngsters to be ‘youths’ until they arrived at the age of 30! When a kid was blessed to ancient Famous greek family, a exposed dad maintained his kid, in a habit show up, around the family. Visitors sent products. The family designed the entrance of their home with a wreath of olives (for a boy) or a wreath of made of woll (for a girl).

In Athens, as in most Famous greek city-states, apart from Sparta, women kept at home until they were wed. Like their mom, they could go to certain gatherings, memorials, and check out buddies for brief intervals. Their job was to help their mom, and to assist in the areas, if necessary.

Ancient Famous greek youngsters performed with many toys, such as rattles, little clay-based animals, horse on 4 wheels that could be pulled on a string, yo-yo’s, and terra-cotta toys.

Greek Cuisine

Food of Portugal involved whole, figs, bread and desserts. The Greeks relished fish and consumed wines. Baby was generally used as a sweetener. Italian and Center Southern meals have affected the Famous greek foods customs. Greeks mostly use essential olive oil for preparing. Moussaka produced from lamb, eggplant and lead with white-colored marinade is well-known in Portugal. Sweets like galaktoboureko and ravani, a golden-yellow food are also well-known among the Greeks. The Famous greek foods is an example of eating habits regime plans from the Mediterranean sea region.

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Before ending this composition on Famous greek customs you will need to develop a reference to the Olympic Video game titles. The Greeks commenced holding running challenges in recognition of their Gods. The ancient Olympic games commenced in 700 B.C. in recognition of Zeus. These games enhanced to five times and commenced such as many athletics events.

The Famous greek customs today stands as an example of a beautiful blend of the ‘ancient’ and the ‘modern’. Famous greek customs is characterised by its variety. The ancient practices and the present-day improvements develop the Famous greek customs unique.


In ancient Athens, marriage ceremony wedding commenced after dark. The veiled woman visited from her home to the home of the bridegroom while waiting in a chariot. Her family followed the chariot on foot, having the products. Friends of the pair lit the way, having torches and playing audio to turn away wicked people. During the marriage ceremony, the woman would eat an apple, or another piece of fruit, to show that foods and other basic needs would now come from her man.

Wedding in Greece

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Gifts to the new pair might include holders, furniture, jewellery, showcases, fragrance, floral vases filled with plants.In ancient Sparta, the marriage ceremony was very easy. Following a tussle, to prove his superior energy, the bridegroom would throw his woman over his make and maintained her off.


Slavery performed a big part in ancient Famous greek many. Slaves could be discovered everywhere. They difficult not only as home servants, but as manufacturer staff, shopkeepers, mineworkers, town staff and as ship’s team members.There may have been as many, if not more, slaves than no cost persons in ancient Portugal. It is challenging for researchers to determine exactly how many slaves there were during these times, because many did not appear any different from the lesser Famous greek persons.

There were many different ways in which a person could have become a cleaning in ancient Portugal. They might have been blessed into slavery as the kid of a cleaning. They might have been taken captive if their metropolis was infected in one of the many challenges which took spot during these times. They might have been exposed as an infant, meaning the mother and dad empty their baby baby upon a hillside or at the entrance of the metropolis to die or be believed by a passerby.
This method was not rare in ancient Portugal. Another possible way in which one might have become a cleaning was if a family desired income, they might provide one of the youngsters into slavery. Usually it was a little young lady because you youngsters were much desired to help out with the work or the town. Kidnapping was another not unusual way in which one could have been marketed into slavery.

Slaves were managed in another way in ancient Portugal based on what their objective was. If one was a family cleaning, they had a pretty excellent scenario, at least as excellent as slavery could be. They were often managed almost as piece of the family. They were even granted to take piece in the family motions, like the give up.
Slaves were always monitored by the woman of the home who was responsible for making sure that all the slaves were kept busy and didn’t get out of line. This could be quite a task as most abundant Famous greek people had as many as 10-20 slaves. There were restrictions to what a cleaning could do. They could not enter the Exercise or the Community Set up. They could not use their own brands, but were given brands by their expert.Not all varieties of slavery in ancient Portugal were as bearable as that of the home cleaning. The day-to-day lifetime of a mineworker or ship’s team member was a day-to-day lifetime of unhappiness and danger.
These persons usually did not stay extensive because of the intense operate and dangerous circumstances of their operate.

Often those required into these circumstances were those ruined to loss of life for spending violations because it was recognized that they wouldn’t stay very extensive under these circumstances. It is surprising to note that the police in ancient Athens was created up mainly of slaves. Many of the individual at the treasury office were slaves.Slavery was a very important piece of ancient Portugal. It performed a big part in so many aspects of Famous greek many from home living to the famous Athenian naval fast.The cost one might have paid for a cleaning in ancient Famous greek times assorted based on their appearance, age and approach. Those who were healthy, attractive, fresh and submissive, could provide for as much as 10 minae ($180.00). Those who were old, weak and persistent might have marketed for as little as 1/2 a mina ($9.00). If there transpired to be a big supply of slaves on the market, the cost immediately went down. This usually transpired after winning a big battle, when there were many criminals of war.

ancient greek slavery

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Traditionally, studies of Famous Portugal focus on the politics, military and social successes of Famous greek men. Unfortunately, the information we have about ancient Famous greek women of all ages is partial because it comes from various resources such as performs, philosophical areas, container operate and figurines which were completed by men. From these resources, we can finish that Famous greek community was extremely stratified in terms of training, race, and sex.
The segregation of men and women functions within ancient Portugal was normal by philosophical claims of the natural efficiency of men. As we shall discover, cleaning women of all ages were at a problem in Famous greek community not only because of their sex but also because of their disadvantaged position in the public structure.
Slave labor was an important element of the standard community. While male slaves were given to farming and industrial operate, women slaves were given a wide variety of home assignments which involved shopping, getting water, preparing, offering foods, cleaning, child-care, and wool-working. In abundant people some of the women servants had more specialised functions to satisfy, such as maid, cook or doctor.

Because women slaves were basically had by their companies, how well slaves were managed observed upon their position in the family and the disposition of their entrepreneurs. As a result of her susceptible position within family, a women cleaning was often suffering from sexual exploitation and actual neglect. Any youngsters blessed of master-servant liaisons were got rid of of because women slaves were disallowed from showing youngsters.Xenophon’s Oceonomicus explains that slaves were even disallowed from getting married to, as marriage ceremony was thought the public advantage of the professional persons of Athens.

In addition to their recognized work in the family, cleaning women also performed unofficial services. For example, there is information that close relationships formulated between women slaves and their mistresses. Given the relative privacy of upper-class women of all ages in the confidential world of their people, many sought out confidantes in their cleaning women. For example, Euripedes’ terrible character of Medea confided her inward feelings with her doctor, who both advised and encouraged her in her stressed times. Furthermore, slaves always supported their mistresses on activities outside of the home.Tombstones of upstanding Athenian women of all ages often illustrate scenes of expertise between the approved and her cleaning associate. It is likely that a feeling of their frequent exemption from the strong community of public relationships would have utilized women of all ages together, regardless of training. The only public region in which women of all ages were granted to participate was faith.

Slave women of all ages were involved in some spiritual relationships and could be started to the Eleusinian Secrets which famous the belief of Persephone.
Thus, the circumstances of a Famous greek cleaning young lady was determined by situation and more or less relaxed in the hands of her entrepreneurs, who had the energy to shape her existence.

Clothing – Accesories

Greek apparel was very easy. Men and ladies used page in the summer and made of woll in the winter. The ancient Greeks could buy cloth and apparel in the agora, the marketplace, but that was highly-priced. Most family members created their own apparel, which were easy tunics and warm cloaks, created of page or made of woll, coloured a shiny color, or bleached white-colored. Attire were created by the mom, her youngsters, and women slaves. They were often designed to signify the city-state in which they resided. The ancient Greeks were very very pleased of their home city-state. Now and then, they might buy jewellery from a visiting peddler, hairpins, rings, and ear-rings, but only the loaded could pay for much jewellery. Both men and ladies in ancient Athens, and in most of the other city-states, used fragrance, created by cooking flowers and herbal treatments.The first real hat, the broad-brimmed petasos, was created by the standard Greeks. It was worn only for visiting. A face secure used it on, so when it was not desired, as protection from the weather, it could hang down ones back.Both men and ladies liked using showcases and hairbrushes. Locks was curled, organized in exciting and carefully designed styles, and used in spot with aromatic waxes and products.

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Women kept their head of hair extensive, in braids, organized on top of their head, or used their head of hair in ponytails. Headbands, created of lace or metallic, were very well-known.Blond hair was unusual. Famous greek popular the golden-haired look and many tried lightening their head of hair. Men cut their head of hair shorter and, unless they were troops, used beards.Barber shops first became well-known in ancient Portugal, and were an important piece of the self confidence of many ancient Famous greek men. In the barber shop, the men changed politics and athletics news, beliefs, and news.

Homes – Courtyards

Greek houses, in the 6th and 5th hundred years B.C., were created up of two or three rooms, designed around an start air courtyard, designed of diamond, wood, or clay-based stones. Larger people might also have a kitchen, a area for bathing, a males lounge, and perhaps a ladies seating space.
Although the Famous greek women of all ages were granted to abandon their people for only shorter intervals, they could enjoy the start air, in the privacy of their courtyard. Much of ancient Famous greek family day-to-day life based around the courtyard.The ancient Greeks loved accounts and fables. One favorite family activity was to collect in the courtyard to hear these accounts, informed by the guardian. In their courtyard, Famous greek women of all ages might relax, chat, and sew.


Most meals were liked in a courtyard near the home. Famous greek cookware was little and light and could easily be set up there. On shiny, sunshine, women of all ages probably protected under a covered region of their courtyard, as the standard Greeks thought a light appearance was a sign of attractiveness.
Food in Famous Portugal contains whole, figs, wheat to develop bread, barley, fruit, vegetables, bread, and food. Individuals in Famous Portugal also ate fruit, fish of all types, and consumed wines.Along the beaches, the land was not very rich, but the standard Greeks used techniques of cleansing and plants spinning to help remedy that problem.They kept goat’s, for take advantage of and cheese. They sometimes sought after for meat.

Education – Military Training – Sparta

The objective of exercising in the Famous greek city-states was to prepare the kid for adult actions as a person. The nature of the city-states assorted greatly, and this was also true of the exercising they thought to be appropriate. In most Famous greek city-states, when fresh, the fresh boys kept at home, helping in the areas, going, and fishing. At age 6 or 7, they went to university. Both lifestyle and exercising were very different in Sparta [militant], than in Athens [arts and culture] or in the other ancient Famous greek city-states.The objective of exercising in Sparta, an authoritarian, military city-state, was to generate soldier-citizens who were well-drilled, well-disciplined walking military. Spartans thought in a day-to-day lifetime of self-control, self-denial, and simpleness. Boys were very true to the condition of Sparta.
The fresh boys of Sparta were required to set off at the age of 7 to join sternly self-disciplined communities under the administration of a structure of authorities. From age 7 to 18, they went through an increasingly severe course of exercising.

ancient greek education, schools

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Spartan fresh boys were sent to military university at age 6 or 7. They resided, qualified and relaxed in their the barracks of their brotherhood. At university, they were shown success knowledge and other knowledge necessary to be an excellent enthusiast. School programs were very challenging and often painful. Although scholars were shown to go through, those knowledge were not very important to the standard Spartans.Only combat mattered. The fresh boys were not fed well, and were informed that it was fine to take foods provided that they did not get found taking. If they were found, they were usual. They went without shoes, relaxed on challenging beds, and difficult at stuff and other actions such as going, moving, javelin and discus putting, swimming, and tracking. They were suffering from demanding self-control and unpleasant actual punishment; indeed, they were shown to take pride in the amount of pain they could experience. At 18, Warrior fresh boys became military cadets and acquired the disciplines of war. At 20, they become a member of the condition militia–a standing arrange energy available for duty at some point of emergency–in which they functioned until they were 60 many a lot of age.

The typical Warrior may or may not have been able to go through. But reading, composing, materials, and the disciplines were thought to be improper for the soldier-citizen and were therefore not piece of his exercising. Music and moving were a piece of that exercising, but only because they functioned military ends.
Somewhere between the age of 18-20, Warrior men had to complete a challenging examine of health, military ability, and authority knowledge. Any Warrior male who did not complete these checkups became a perioikos. (The perioikos, or the middle-class, were granted to own property, have business purchases, but had no politics privileges and were not persons.)

If they approved, they was a full person and a Warrior enthusiast. Warrior persons were disallowed to touch income. That was the job of the middle-class. Warrior troops spent most of their existence with their other troops.They ate, relaxed, and ongoing to practice within their brotherhood barracks. Even if they were wed, they didn’t accept their wives and family members. They resided in the barracks. Military service did not end until a Warrior male arrived at the age of 60. When he was 60, a Warrior enthusiast could stop working and reside in their home with their family.Unlike the other Famous greek city-states, Sparta provided training women that went beyond the home disciplines. The women were not required to set off, but otherwise their exercising looked like that of the fresh boys. Everybody acquired to run, jump, throw the javelin and discus, and wrestle mightiest strangle a fluff. Girls also went along to university at age six or seven. They resided, relaxed and competent in their sisterhood’s barracks. No one knows if their university was as terrible or as durable as the fresh boys university, however the women were shown struggling, stuff and combat knowledge.

Some researchers believe the two universities were much the same, and that an effort was created to practice women as thoroughly as they qualified the fresh boys. In any case, the Spartans thought that powerful women of all ages would generate powerful babies.When he was 18, if a Sparta young lady approved her knowledge and health examine, she would be given a man and granted to go home. If she unsuccessful, she would lose her privileges as a person, and became a perioikos, an relate of the middle-class.In most of the other Famous greek city-states, women of all ages were required to stay within their people most of their existence. In Sparta, person women of all ages were totally able to go about, and liked a lot of independence, as their men didn’t stay in your own home.

Educations in Athens

The aim of exercising in Athens, a democratic city-state, was to generate persons qualified in the humanities of both tranquility and war.
In ancient Athens, the objective of exercising was to generate persons been qualified in the disciplines, to manage persons for tranquility and war. Other than necessitating two many a lot of military exercising that commenced at age 18, the condition left mother and dad to educate their kids as they saw fit. The universities were confidential, but the expenses was low enough so that perhaps the lowest persons could pay for to send their youngsters not less than many years. Until age six or seven, fresh boys generally were shown at home by their mom.Most Athenian women had a mainly home exercising. Probably the most extremely qualified women of all ages were the hetaerae, or courtesans, who went to special universities where they acquired to be exciting pets for the men who could pay for to keep them.

Boys went to middle university from when these were about age six or seven until they were 13 or 14. A piece of their exercising was stuff. Younger fresh boys acquired to go beautifully, do calisthenics, and enjoy ball along with other games. The older fresh boys acquired going, moving, punching, struggling, and discus and javelin putting. The fresh boys also acquired to enjoy the lyre and perform, to count, and to go through. But it was materials which was at the heart of their learning.
The national impressive songs from the Greeks – Homer’s Journey and Iliad – were a vital piece of the lifetime of the Athenian persons. The time their individuals could produce, the instructors determined paragraphs from Homer for them to take down, remember, and later act out. Teachers and individuals also discussed the successes of the Famous greek people described by Homer.The exercising of mind, body, and artistic feeling was, according to Plato, so the fresh boys. From age 6 to 14, they went to a neighborhood primary university or to a confidential university. Books were very highly-priced and unusual, so subject matter were go through out-loud, and the fresh boys desired to remember everything. To help them discover, they used composing pills and rulers.At 13 or 14, the professional exercising of the lesser fresh boys probably ended and was then apprenticeship at a trade. The wealthy fresh boys ongoing their exercising under the tutelage of philosopher-teachers.

Until about 390 BC there were no lasting universities with no professional programs for such degree. Socrates, for instance, came around Athens, avoiding here or there to carry conversations with the persons about everything regarding the conduct of person’s day-to-day life. But progressively, as classes of scholars linked themselves to one instructor or another, lasting universities were established. It was in such universities that Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle shown.The fresh boys who went to these universities dropped into more or less two communities.People who desired learning for its own cause researched with philosophers like Plato who shown such subject matter as geometry, astronomy, harmonics (the precise theory of music), and mathematics.People who desired training public day-to-day life examined with philosophers like Socrates who shown mainly oratory and unsupported claims. In democratic Athens such exercising was appropriate and necessary because energy relaxed using the men that had a chance to influence their other senators to act.

Athena Goddess

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Athena Goddess

Athena was the girl child of Zeus and Metis. But there is a controversy, Zeus examined on Metis and found out that if he had a son by her this son could be mightier than him (you recognize, the same way he was greater than his daddy and his daddy was higher than his grandpa). So he tricked Metis and finished up swallowing her when she turned into a fly and figured she wasn’t any longer a threat. However, Metis was pregnant with Athena so when Athena was born, this became a good problem. Soon Zeus was affected with killer head aches and he ran to Hephaestus (Smith God) and begged him to open his head. Hephaestus did because he was told, and out popped Athena, adult and ready for battle!

Other versions peg her father as Pallas (who later tried to ravage her and she killed him without hesitation and took his name and skin). Some say her daddy was Itonus, a King of Iton. Some say her biological father was Poseidon, but that she begged to be adopted by Zeus. Regardless of what the story is, she never incorporates a real mother.

Athena’s birth “is a needy theological expedient to rid her of matriarchal conditions” says J. E. Harrison. She was the Goddess of Wisdom, and the daughter of the Titaness who basically personified it. With her born only from Zeus, it gave males authority and control of something had previously only been a female realm. Zeus swallowed Metis, and so surely could assimilate her crafty wisdom. Athena didn’t have any loyalty to a mother figure, which surely played an essential role in her self-description as misogynist.


Athena was, as I said earlier, the Goddess of more things than I can shake a stick at. But they also can be pretty easily summarized into three things. She was the Goddess of Wisdom, Goddess of Military Victory (war with good tactics and winning strategies, not just fighting, like Ares), and Goddess of Crafts. I need to elaborate a bit more on that last one, just so you can understand her coolness. Athena invented the flute, the trumpet, the earthenware pot, the plough, the rake, the ox-yoke, the horse-bridle, the chariot, also, the ship. Now that’s only the “guy” stuff. She seemed to be the earliest teacher with the science of numbers, and all women’s arts: weaving, cooking, and spinning. If you are looking through paintings and you think you might need found something that is Athena, here is a few of her iconography: the aegis (shield/fringed cloak, sometimes with the head of Medusa on it), a shield (again, sometimes while using head of Medusa), bronze armor, a helmet (this is very common), and a spear (also very common). Athena have also been one of the three Virgin Goddesses on Olympus, something you might like to learn more about.

The Naming of Athens

I am telling this story here (briefly) because it’s imperative that you Athena (I think), but there’s a far greater version of this, for your studying pleasure, in the Myth Pages. So! Wayyyyyy in older days town of Athens belonged to Poseidon. He’d claimed it by arriving, striking a rock along with his trident and establishing a spring. Though the spring only gushed brine, and so it wasn’t very helpful, even if it was reasonably pretty. Several years later, in the course of the reign of Cecrops (a half-snake dude who had previously been the king there), Athena arrived and planted an olive tree, thus proclaiming the land for herself. Poseidon was fully pissed off, and challenged Athena to mortal combat (he would have got his ass kicked) and Athena was about to just accept with the exception that Zeus stepped in and stopped them (he probably didn’t want Poseidon killed). Instead they went before the Gods with Cecrops presenting evidence. The Gods voted. All the males voted for Poseidon and all sorts of the Goddesses voted for Athena, excepting Zeus – who refused to give his opinion. Therefore, Athena won the decision by one vote.
Poseidon was pissed, and – like the stupid boy he was – threw a temper tantrum and flooded a different one of Athena’s cities (called Athenae on a Thriasian Plain). So Athena moved to Athens, took residence there and named that city after herself too. But, to help Poseidon’s ego, the women of Athens were missing out on their vote, and men were no longer to sling their mothers’ names.

Love and youngsters and Virginity

Athena was liked by most everyone, and was a very loving person herself. But she loved everyone in the filial sense (like a sister), and was fully bored with sex. There are heaps of Gods that would have given their eyes to marry her, but she was completely disgusted by the idea. Once, throughout the Trojan War, Athena needed to ask Hephaestus to create her a set of armor and weapons. She agreed to pay him, but Hephaestus insisted that his only payment can be love. She completely missed the lovemaking innuendo and agreed. When she came to Hephaestus’ smithy to develop her stuff, he came at her and tried to ravage her. Obviously that didn’t happen. Don’t think to badly of Hephaestus though, it truly wasn’t all his fault. Poseidon had played a joke on him and told him that Athena was on her method to the smithy hoping to make violent love to him. Athena totally ran away from the unfortunate Hephaestus, but she didn’t move quite fast enough and he ejaculated on her leg. Athena was completely grossed out, and wiped it off with a bit of wool that she then dropped on the planet. That might be Gaia, and she was fertilized by the semen on the wool. Gaia was revolted at the very idea of it, and so she refused to bring a youngster up. Athena was fine with this and thought we would bring the kid, who she named Erichthonius (“Earth-born”), up herself. There’s more to this story (involving love, suicide, and folks getting turned into stone), but if you want to know it, you better sample it out in the Myth Pages. Sadly it is not there yet, so you’re just gonna ought to wait.

Goodness and Temper

In general, Athena was a very nice goddess. She was very modest, like Artemis, but way more generous. Athena, like Artemis, was surprised at an enraptured onlooker while bathing, but she didn’t kill him or transform him or rip him to shreds or anything. She laid her hands over his eyes and blinded him, but gave him inward sight and the chance to understand the birds’ signs to tell the long run. Due to this fact, Teiresias (that has been his name) was highly respected and revered there after. So wasn’t bad at all.

Athena was, as I said, generally cool. But every once in a while she got all pissy (as gods tend to get) and lashed out. Once, was a rather minor incident when she invented this double stemmed flute. She really was anxious about it, and went around playing it everywhere. That is definitely, until someone happened to mention that she looked absolutely ridiculous along with her cheeks puffed out prefer that to experience. She was furious and threw the flute to the ground where it was found by Marsyas, but that’s another story. Las Hilanderas by Diego Velasquez The one time Athena really lost it for something petty what food was in the story of Arachne, and that story isn’t even really Greek. Arachne was this Lydian princess who was a fabulous weaver. She was so good that individuals said she was a lot better than Athena. Athena heard and was all like, “Excuuuuuuse me? Please girl, I was weaving before humans existed,” and challenged Arachne to a weave-off. My mom and dad made beautiful tapestries, and both were completely flawless, except Arachne’s made fun of the Gods. Athena was bitter and very pissed and ripped Arachne’s work to shreds in a cold, vengeful rage. Arachne totally didn’t mean to upset her heroine and hung herself, but Athena remembered herself, and saved the girl by turning her into a spider and giving her the ability to weave forever. In a variation on the same theme, Servius reports that Athena loved this Attic chick, but the girl (Myrmex) went out and betrayed Athena’s trust by claiming to have invented the plow herself, when it was really Athena. See, if they were both mortal, there’d have already been all this drama, someone would’ve gone home crying … but Athena just turned the girl into an ant for being so presumptuous and that was the end of that.

Athena is usually referred to in mythology, but when you don’t know her names, sometimes these references can be hard to catch. She is often called Pallas, or Pallas Athene. This name comes from a childhood friend she had, a nymph, who she accidentally killed when they were having a mock battle. Athena was distraught and carried her friend’s name with her forever more. The name, Pallas, means Maiden. And as Athena is often referred to in this form – which can refer to her Virginity, her Youthful Strength, or her Independence – you should definitely know what it means.Often you will find references to her as “gray-eyed”, a reference which seems linked only to Athena and may have something to do with her wisdom. There is one weird reference by Pausanias about Athena having blue eyes. That comes from a Libyan story that Athena was the daughter of Poseidon and Lake Tritonis, and due to that has blue eyes like her father. But this story is not generally accepted, and you aren’t going to find a blue-eyed Athena anywhere except on one statue next to a specific Temple of Hephaestus, so don’t worry about it. Sometimes she is called “bright-eyed” but that is common to all Gods.In Cylarabes there is an Athena called Pania. This name, I am guessing, comes from her discovery of the flute. In Athens they called her Athena Ergane (Worker) and were very devoted to her because of her crafts. The story of her patronship of Athens is really cool, and I told it above. She was called Athena Aethyia (Gannet, a type of bird), and I don’t know why yet, but there was a Rock dedicated to this where the hero Pandion died.

Tritogeneia was another name of Athena’s. It could have originate from three different sources. Geneia means “born” in Greek, so it could be a mention of the idea that Athena came to be from the Lake Tritonis. It also could have been from tritô, the Aeolian word for “head”, therefore “head-born” – which may create a wide range of sense. The other idea is that the trito was from the root meaning “three” and that she was the 3rd child (she was the 3rd Olympian daughter of Zeus after Artemis and Apollo).

Okay – there are plenty of epithets of Athena that I don’t have room or patience to discuss these at length, but here is a list I copied directly out of Robert E. Bell’s Women of Classical Mythology: A Biographical Dictionary (BUY IT!): Acraea, Aethyia, Ageleia, Agoraea, Alalcomeneis, Alcimache, Alcis, Alea, Amublia, Anemotis, Apaturia, Areia, Asia, Assesia, Axiopoenos, Boulaia, Budeia, Chalinitis, Chryse, Cleidouchos, Colocasia, Coryphasia, Cydonia, Ergane, Glaucopis, Hellotia, Hippia, Hippolatis, Hygieia, Iasonia, Itonia, Laosos, Laphria, Larissaea, Lindia, Longatos, Magarsia, Munychia, Narcaea, Nedusia, Nice, Onca, Ophthalmitis, Optiletis, Oxydercis, Paeonia, Pallas, Pallenis, Panachaea, Pareia, Parthenos, Phrygia, Polias, Poliuchos, Polyboulos, Promachorma, Pronaea, Pylaitis, Saitis, Salpinx, Sciras, Soteira, Telchinia, Triton, Xenia, Zosteria.

Of the many derivations proposed for the name of Athena (or Athene) none is really satisfactory.The Sanskrit vadh (to strike) and adh (hill) have been suggested, as well as the Greek for ‘flower’ and ‘nurse’! All in the dative form, which may be translated as: To the lady of Athena (Atana), to Enyalios, to Paeaon, to Poseidon. By doing this the Minoan-Mycenean name of the Goddess Athena as been preserved for us. The name of the Goddess may be understood straight from the Greek as the one “who comes”. The poetic epithet Pallas frequently joined towards the name Athena arrives either from the Greek ‘to strike’ or more probably in the Greek ‘girl’.

athena goddess, athena goddess of wisdom and war, athena goddess symbol

The Cult of Athena

Though she was honored throughout Greece Athena was the object of an especial cult in Athens. On the Acropolis she’s got, besides the Parthenon, two other temples: the temple of Athena Nike and the Erechtheum.

The chief festivals from the cult of Athena were: the Arrephoria, throughout which two little girls of noble family, from seven to eleven years old, descended from the Acropolis to deposit in an underground chamber near the sanctuary of Aphrodite mysterious objects which they carried in a basket; the Scirophoria, when priests and priestesses walked in solemn procession under a vast parasol (sciron); and finally the Panathenaea which dated in the days of Theseus and contains a solemn procession to the Acropolis by which was carried to the Goddess a peplos made by probably the most skilled workmen in Athens. Taking part weren’t only priests and magistrates but also girls carrying baskets, old men bearing olive branches and teenagers on horseback. During the Panathenaea were held races, gymnastic games, regattas and contests of music, singing and dancing.

Athena’s Chastity

On all the times when Athena came to the aid of heroes it was because they were worthy of her esteem, not because of any amorous attraction. Athena was a striking exception to Olympian society because of her absolute chastity. In spite of calumny and insinuations about supposed relations with Helios, Hephaestus as well as Hercules, her heart remained insensitive towards the pangs of love and she or he defended her virginity fiercely. Woe to anybody who wounded her modesty!

Eventually when she was bathing with the nymph Chariclo, Teiresias by chance beheld her. He was responsible for a maximum of unconscious indiscretion. Athena, nevertheless, punished him by depriving him of his sight. In spite of her companion’s plea for pity she refused to revoke her decision, but to soften the harshness of the punishment she conferred upon the unhappy Teiresias the gift of foretelling the near future.

Hephaestus became enamored of Athena. One day once the Goddess came to see him about creating a suit of armor for her he attempted to violate her. Athena fled, pursued by the limping God, he caught up with her, but she defended herself so effectively that Hephaestus was not able to accomplish his criminal design and, instead, scattered his seed on the earth, which shortly afterwards gave birth to a son, Erichthonius. The child was discovered by Athena, who brought him up unknown to the other Gods. She enclosed the infant in a basket which she confided to the daughters of Cecrops, forbidding them to open it up. One of the sisters, Pandrosus, obeyed; the other 2, Herse and Aglauros, could not control their curiosity. But the moment they opened the basket they fled in terror; for around the infant a serpent was coiled. They were stricken with madness by Athena, and flung themselves off the top of the Acropolis. Erichthonius grew to maturity and became king of Athens, where he established the solemn cult of Athena.

The catastrophic fire which destroyed definitively the palace of Cnossus arround 1375 BCE has burned also seriously the tables of clay from the archives, in such a way that now, after being deciphered, speak to us in the quality of documents of this last period. They are only lists which hold, essentially, names and numbers. Between the names, immediately calls our attention a series of Greek Gods who became later current. Daughter of Zeus, and just by him, the Goddess Athena wasn’t generated by any woman. She leaped from the head of Zeus, already adult, dressed together with her armor.But the mother isn’t completely missing from the miraculous birth of Pallas Athena. According to Hesiod’s account of the weddings of Zeus, the King of the Gods chose Metis as his first wife. She was of all beings “the most knowing” (as the word metis is interpreted), or “of many counsels” as converted in the sense of the Homeric epithet polymetis.

As she was about to give birth to the Goddess Athena, Zeus deceived his pregnant wife with cunning words and assimilated her into his own body. Mother Earth and Father Sky had advised him to do this so as to prevent any of his descendants from robbing him of his kingly rank. For it was destined that the most brilliant children were to be born to the Goddess Metis: first, the daughter Athena, and later a son, the future King of Gods and men. In the most ancient account, the Iliad, Athena may be the Goddess of ferocious and implacable fight, but, wherever she will be found, she only is a warrior to guard the State and the native land against the enemies originating from outside.

She is, above all, the Goddess from the City, the protectress of civilized life, of artesian activities, and of agriculture. She also invented the horse-bit, which, for the first time, tamed horses, allowing men to use them.She is the favorite daughter of Zeus; which explains why he let her use his insignia: the terrible shield, the aegis and his devastating weapon, the ray.The most famous expression to describe her is “the bright eyed”. She’s the first of the three virgin Goddesses, also called Maiden, Parthenos, and out of this name was taken the name to the most important Temple dedicated to her, the Parthenon.In poetry she is the incarnation of Wisdom, Reason and Purity.Athens is her city; the olive tree, developed by her, is her tree; the owl, is the birth consecrated to her.