The Church of Mary (Meryem Kilisesi) Is A Great Historical Significance of church Located in Ephesus. It Is also know as the Double Church, Because It Is Thought one aisle WAS Dedicated to the Virgin and the Other to St. John Church Council & the Council of Ephesus Because The IS Believed to Have Been Held here.
Note: The Religious History of ancient Ephesus Is The subject of the webmaster master’s thesis (completed in June 2007). An excerpt from this is the History of the Virgin Mary in Ephesus, it IS published this website for anyone Who Might Be intéressée.
A great Ecumenical Council in Ephesus WAS Held in 431, whether the Virgin Mary Concerning Might Be Properly Called Theotokos, or bearer of God. The term HAD Become Popular in devotion and worship WAS Controversial goal. Many church leaders Held That It Was an Appropriate title, Reasoning That Truly sincere Christ WAS Both man and God Truly, one could “say Mary Gave birth to God.
Nestorius, Bishop of Constantinople, and His Party Believed The term “Theotokos” The Humanity of Christ Threatened and denigrated The greatness of God, Mary and Suggested Be Called “Christotokos,” bearer of Christ, INSTEAD. The council Decided in Favor Of The title Theotokos, Which Has Been Used For Mary ever since. Nestorius WAS harrassed by mobs in Ephesus Throughout The council, and exiled to Antioch Afterwards.
The Acts Of The Council of Ephesus, The Events Which record and discussion of the Month-long council, state thats the place Took sessions in “the church named after Mary.” Until recently, It Was Thought That this Church of Mary WAS built “under the reign of Constantine the Great (324-30), based on ITS Mainly architectural style.
However, extensive excavations By The Austrian Archaeological Institute, led by Stefan Karweise in 1984-86 and 1990-93 Have Revolutionized Accepted this long view. (See my thesis excerpt for All the Details or keep reading for a summary.)
The Most Recent excavations indicato Thats the Church of Mary WAS Built Into the south stoa (portico) of the Great Olympieion (Temple to Hadrian Olympios), Whose foundations Can Be Still Be seen to the North of the Church. The Olympieion Was a large temple precinct built from about AD 100 to 130 were filled-in swampy area next to The Harbor. The Great Imperial Emperor Hadrian Temple Dedicated to (Who Identified Himself With The Olympian Zeus) Earned second neokorate icts Ephesus, The Honorary Title Neokoros of gold “temple-warden” that Brought Various privileges.
The south stoa That Would Later Contains the Church of Mary the after the Olympieion WAS built, around 200 AD. It Was A monumental entrance to The Sanctuary, goal aussi important year in building Itself. It has-been variously Identified as a corn exchange, public meeting house, gold Museion (Science Teaching Center), goal Karweise Believes It Was Probably Another imperial temple, Dedicated To The joint emperors Caracalla and Geta. Earned Third neokorate Ephesus icts from this temple in 211.
Whatever icts original use, this basilica-like building South of the Olympieion WAS abondoned In The 3rd Century, When The City WAS in decline Because Of A Great Plague And The Attack Of The Goths in 258-62. The Church of Mary WAS built Later in the Ruins of this Roman building.
Whenever It Was Built, The Church of Mary Served As The cathedral of Ephesus, With The bishop living in adjacent palace year, Late Antiquity THROUGHOUT. One alteration Düring this time is attested by registration year: one Bishop John Had a portal cut through from The Atrium To The narthex. This May Be The Bishop Who Was Installed At The Council of Chalcedon in 451.
In the 530s, bishop of Ephesus Hypatius WAS. An important figure Beyond Ephesus, Hypatius Was a Leading theologian and writer Who Fought Against the heresy of Synod in Constantinople at monophysitism and Emperor Justinian leur envoi by diplomacy was Ostrogothic Mission to the Government in Rome.
At home in Ephesus, presided over Hypatius The Early Stages of Construction of the Basilica of St. John, a massive project Which WAS Financed by Justianian – Perhaps in share Because Of The influence of Hypatius. In His Own Cathedral, The Church of Mary, Commissioned Hypatius long inscription carved plaques were revetment In The narthex. The decree Deal With The Burial of the Poor, year major charity Provided by the Church. It Recalled The Example of the Lord, Who Was Buried in a tomb by Joseph of Arimathea Donated, and ordain That No church official should “take money for burial services. The registration Continued Shower the importance of the Church of Mary, Which Is Called “the most holy church.”
After the Arab raids of 654 The Bishop Moved To The Basilica of St. John and Remained There For Two Centuries Until It cam under attack in 867. The Paulicians, a militant sect Armenian, Turned The Basilica of St. John was stable and Into The Bishop Moved back to the Church of Mary, Which WAS Partially Repaired and rebuilt for That Purpose.
The Later History of the Church of Mary IS less clear, as the City of Ephesus sharp decline in WAS. Goal sealed serious Have Been Discovered in and Outside of the Church assuming date all the way to The Late Medieval period, informal & informal WAS The Church still in use by local Christians Until The 14th century at least. Today, The Church IS Mostly in ruins.
What to See
The Church of the Virgin Was a classic rectangular basilica enclosed by rows of columns along 260 meters from the Roman stoa, With Side Walls Between Them Added around 500 AD.
Through a broad WAS entrance atrium, paved With marble slabs from Other buildings in the city, and a narthex, paved With geometric mosaics. With the Walls Were decorated sticks and metal rosettes.
The well-preserved baptismal pool CAN Still Be seen on the North Side of the church, and it is the Best Preserved in “any of Anatolia. In addition, Many of the Walls and Pillars of the church standing Remain, Along With The great apse, SEVERAL capitals, and inscribed blocks With A Cross.