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Ephesus an ancient jewel

12:13 am

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A few cities allow such a vivid insight into the lifestyle of the ancient world, such as Ephesus. Theater, luxurious baths and a library are evidence of the prosperity enjoyed by the settlement for 1,000 years.

Ionians from the island of Samos could be BC around 1000. settled in Ephesus. The place was associated with the Anatolian fertility goddess Cybele, which later corresponded to the Greek goddess Artemis. In her honor erected the temple of Artemis, another of the seven wonders of the region.

The city was successively under the rule of the Lydians, the Persians and the Attalids, the kings of Pergamon. BC to the year 133rd, 111th as Attalus his kingdom, and bequeathed Ephesus with him, the Romans. Ephesus was 200 000 inhabitants, one of the most important cities of the new province of Asia, and could, thanks to brisk commercial activities widen its prosperity. But his development was directly dependent on natural harbor, and as of this 3rd century AD gradually silted up, the decline of Ephesus was inevitable.

Rediscovered, the city then by a British archaeologist. Most of the ruins that are visible today date from the Roman period between 1 Cent. and the 2 Century AD .. And here is a big tribute to the Austrian archaeologists who are working here today.
The tour usually begins at the Magnesian
Goal leads and then down the slope on the main road. The first building within the walls is relatively well preserved Odejon (Council Chamber) with the semi-circular seats arranged and Prytaneion (City Hall). where you found the two statues of Artemis. Now exhibited in the Selcuk Museum.

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On the marble Kuretenstraße it goes through the Hercules to Hadrian’s Temple, its arched entrance from the head of the goddess of luck Tyche being crowned. The large complex which housed the right Seholastika-baths and an
The impressive facade of the Celsus Library, the 110 AD. built by a Roman Consul as a memorial and burial site for his father was (restored 1970). Between the columns are statues of the four virtues: Sophia (wisdom), Arete (Valor), Ennoia (rear view), Episteme (knowledge).
The marble road leads right to the library over to the Great Theatre, where probably took place in the Bible described the uprising of the silversmiths. The huge grandstand offered 25 000 spectators, and even today the public flows annually to the International Festival of Ephesus here. Of the top ranks of one also has a magnificent view of the Arkadenweg, the columnar-lined former main street that was lit by Ollampen. At its end is the old, now long since silted harbor, however, only one remained overgrown with scrub floor sink.
The town of Selcuk, a few miles from Ephesus, has an interesting museum and several monuments. The St. John’s Basilica from the 6th Century
stands on the grave of the apostle. The fort is high up the Byzantine period. Below the hill is the impressive Isa Bey Mosque (1375), the once great temple of Artemis right behind only a single column has survived the test of time.
John to Mary to 37-48 AD. brought to Ephesus, in Meryemana (House of the Virgin Mary) on the hills outside the city spent the Mother of God her last years. The foundations probably come from the first century and were in the 19 Century thanks to the visions of Anne Catherine Emmerich, a German nun, rediscovered. Today, the pilgrimage chapel.

The ruins of Ephesus (and vicinity)

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The first information about Ephesus and its surroundings date back to the seventh century BC (Ephesus), then it was razed in the mid-sixth century BC The inhabitants were allowed to rebuild, so they founded Ephesus II (the revenge ;-) A few years after it was conquered by the Persians, who left considerable autonomy, but imposed heavy taxes. Then it came under the hegemony spartesi. After the death of Alexander the Great, Ephesus came under the kingdom of Pergamon. Here again the inhabitants were forced to leave the city, to rebuild the sea. This settlement is the third Ephesus III, that you visit. Subsequently, the Anatolia came under Roman rule. When Christianity was born Ephesus became the seat of one of the first Christian communities. Nonper anything the church of Ephesus is mentioned as one of the Seven Churches of Revelation.
Finally in 262 A. D. the Goths sacked and destroyed Ephesus.

Since there was a large group of incoming tourists to a Costa ship, the leadership has taken us a visit to the contrary, but most quietly. But again, the guide was great stuff, because in addition to explain what you saw, you did enter the environment was at the time.
One of the best preserved buildings is the BIBILIOTECA. The building has an imposing facade (seen on all the postcards), but it is a false front. In fact, compared with two rows of windows, there was only one floor. However you say it was one of the biggest with over 12,000 ancient papyrus scrolls. Very interesting is the fact that they had provided a cavity between two walls, in order to stop damp. Inside there are four copies of statues representing the virtues of a woman.
The Theatre is monumental, with 24 thousand seats and a scene at the time is truly impressive 18 meters high. And ‘well-preserved (given the age). E ‘famous especially because St. Paul preached to evangelize the Ephesians, arousing the ire of the pagans. Our guide says that professing poverty and common ownership has gone against the traders’ lobby.
The double church of Mary and the harbor near the spa, has three naves. He was born in the second century BC as a school. It was later transformed into a church, adding an apse and a baptistery. Here were held two ecumenical councils (in 431 and 449, to combat the heresies).
PORT OF MAGNESIA is one of two city gates. Was made to expand the Emperor Vespasian also be used as a triumphal arch. On this side of the road of religious processions that came to the ancient Meander of Magnesia (the famous meandering river).
The Hellenistic walls are made of dry (without mortar), have a thickness of 2 meters and a height of 6. Every 100 meters there is a turret.
The AGORA ‘PRIVATE BODIES OF THE STATE, is a huge square around which there were several buildings and was used to hold civic meetings for special celebrations and to give a home to some political bodies. Not to be confused with the commercial agora, dedicated to all the people.
The Odeon was built around 150 A.D. on the ruins of an earlier building. It was used as a concert hall and as buleterion (the meeting room of the old nobility, that dealt with key financial, administrative and diplomatic. Probably was equipped with a roof and 1,400 people could count.
The temple of the goddess Roma was a building that served the dual worship of the goddess Roma (the city was revered as a goddess) and Giulio Cesare
The fountain of Trajan dating from the early second century AD The original height was 12 feet, although now there is very little.
The Baths of Skolastika built at the end of the first dc sercolo around 400 were renovated with funding from a wealthy woman named Skolastika. You can still see the spaces used to heat the walls and floors. It is estimated that the complex could contain more than 1000 people.
Hadrian’s Temple, is located near the hot springs of Skolastika. It was restored in the fourth century. There are several bas-reliefs depicting the boar hunt, the fight of the Amazons, the arrival of Dionysus on an elephant and a number of pagan gods.
The latrines and the brothel, are integral parts of the baths. Very interesting is an inscription in the floor of the main road that served as advertising for the sailors who came. There is depicted a left foot (turn left) a queen (to indicate that there are beautiful women) and a hole (to indicate the size of the coin … .. request).
Celsus Library is the most impressive building (seen in all photos, even in my ;-)). E ‘with two floors and is equipped with front columns. It was built in memory of Celsus Polemaenus, governor of the province Asia. It was equipped with 12,000 rolls of papyrus. Inside there are four statues of women (the originals are in Vienna) that represent the quality. The building was equipped with a double wall to prevent moisture from entering. On one hole you can see the sarcophagus of Celsus in the crypt.
THEATRE dates from the Hellenistic period and has 24,000 seats. The scene, 18 meters high, is the result of renovations took the Romans, and completed at the time of Trajan. 54 here in St. Paul preached to evangelize the Ephesians, however, provoking a violent reaction of the pagans, led by a vendor of statutette Artemide.La visit to Ephesus continues with other interesting things around.

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According to St. John the Apostle writes, returning from his trip to the island of Patmos, he stopped at Ephesus and died there about the year 100. Therefore we consider here there is his grave.
In the fourth century was built a small church. Later the Byzantine Emperor Justinian the First built a basilica over his remains in two planes and three aisles, of 110 meters in length, covered by six domes. As often happened in the ancient church was built largely with material from the theater of Ephesus.
When in the seventh and the seventh century Anatolia was subject to incursions of the Arabs, the church was surrounded by walls, WHICH ALSO INCLUDED fortitude.
In the Turkish (from the fourteenth century. On) the church was used as a mosque, so that there are still remnants of the minaret. At the end of the fourteenth century, the building fell to a massive earthquake that shook the whole area.
You can see the remains of the baptistery and a chapel. What is referred to as the tomb of the Apostle is located in a crypt. The place has been the subject of pilgrimage by Pope John Paul II (there is a plaque in memory).
According to the Gospels, Mary was entrusted by Christ to St. John. E ‘found that the Apostle lived at Ephesus, where he died. So it seems that he brought with him. The proceedings of the First Council of Ephesus (431 AD speak of a house where she would live the Virgin Mary near Ephesus.
In the early nineteenth century German nun, never mossasi from Germany, described exactly a location near Ephesus, where a small old house was listed as the home of Madonna. Following the directions found a brother in fact the ruins of a small ancient building. Excavations subsequent investigations dating back at least to the III century AD, but probably goes back on the first part.
What is now called the House of the Virgin Mary is in a very small building with a Greek cross, transformed into a chapel by French monks.
Personally, I made a great impression to be in a place like that in a predominantly Muslim country. But tolerance seems to be at home in Turkey.

To all those who wish to visit I highly recommend a hat, because there are very few trees and in summer exceed 40 degrees.

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