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Hierapolis was established by King Eumenes 2 and was given the name of “Hiera” in the honour of the wife of Telephos, the legendary establisher of the ancient Pergamum.
Hierapolis was visited frequently by the people from the nearest cities and Laodicea -the ancient site established before Hierapolis, for using the thermal springs known for its curing properties to several illnesses.
From the 3 BC, as the fame of Hierapolis increased continually, migrations started from around and Hierapolis became an attractive and a favorable settlement, a rival city to Laodicea.
Was given to the Roman Empire in 133 BC, in the will of Pergamon King, Attalos 2. The town was destroyed completely by an earthquake in 17AD, in the reign of Tiberious.
The re-construction of Hiera polis was started in 60 AD, during the reign of Nero. Hierapolis reached its high and lived the most prosperous periods during the reign of Severus and his son Caracalla, around the years of 196AD and 215AD. A substantial development existed in the city, in art and culture. Many rich marble mines were founded and the marbles of Hierapolis were used in Hagia Sophia of Istanbul.
It was governed by a Roman governor of Ephesus, in the Roman period. Sources stated that the city was also visited by Hadrian. With the division of the Roman Empire into two in 395 AD, the city was ruled by the Byzantine. Hierapolis had become the capital of Phyrigia during the reign of Constantine.
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The acceptance of Christianity created a new stage for the social and religious structure of Hierapolis’ becoming a patriarchal center. Also, in 80 AD, St. Philip -one of the 12 Apostles, was thought to have been killed in Hierapolis.
The city lost its prior importance from the early of the 6th century, continuing to the 11th century. The dreadful earthquake in 1354 meant the city was emptied, totally and has not settled properly since that date, even in Turkish-Ottoman periods. The city was covered by the uncontrolled waters and travertine. Today the thermal waters of Hierapolis reached to its former fame and became an interesting touristical center for foreigners, not reputed only for its thermal waters, but also for its various temples and social activities such as the lively festivals and music concerts, popular with all.
Therefore, tourism was one of the main incomes of Hierapolis, during that era. Textile was also developed gradually and had become the principal source of the city’s prosperity.
Cappadocia which is unique and is a miraculous nature wonder is the common name for the region of the provinces of Aksaray, Nevsehir, Nigde, Kayseri and Kirsehir in central Anatolia region.
In the period of Myos higher in the Cappadocia region because of volcanic eruptions occurred in Erciyes, Hasandag Gulludag and was in the region formed a vast plateau of volcanic tuff and in collaboration with the erosion of the river and the wind Kizilirmak over ten years thausands appeared the chimney rocks, which is a natural wonder. In the early Bronze Age of Cappadocia, which was the area the population of the Assyrian civilization later has hosted the Hittite, fridge, Pers, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman civilizations. The early Christians have fled persecution in the Roman Empire in the second century BC came to Cappadocia in Antakya and Kayseri and they settled here. The early Christians are the underground cities of Cappadocia has been hidden in these underground cities which gates were made so that they could not easily observable, and they fled persecution by the Roman soldiers.
Because of this they live in underground cities for long without being able to get what they have developed these underground cities by making provisions rooms, ventilation chimneys, places of production of wine, churches, abbeys , water wells, toilets and meeting rooms.
In prehistoric times, the first settlements began and humans have built underground cities in the tuff as a result of protection against wild animals and lived long in these underground cities. There are underground cities for many in the Cappadocia region of Turkey, but the biggest is the city of Derinkuyu underground.
In such cities as parts connected to each other some of the rooms were connected to each other, only with narrow tunnels and allow the passage of one person. To access the gates of these tunnels there were huge stone rollers used for closing the tunnels for safety reasons.
The first people in the region of Cappadocia was Luvie Hattie and the Hittites. In the years 3000-2000 BC, the Assyrians have established trade colonies in this region. Cappaddocian tables with cuneiform in Assyrian language founded in Kanes illuminates the social and political life of the time and were at the same time, trade and economic agreements are the firs written tablets of Anatolia. According to these documents from the period in Anatolia were founded small local kingdoms, not by a central authority. Usually, their hands in a small area and live in peace. The region to form the core of the Hittite Empire later passed under the dominion of Phrygia and Persian civilization Katpatuka Persons called this region and its center was Mazak.
When Datames Satrab (Starab: District Administrator in a small Persons) Cappadocia has bear arms against the biggest king of Pers, the other Anatolian Satrabs supported him, but the rebellion broke. In 33 BC, Alexander the Great had captured an important part of Cappadocia. Cappadocia in 188 BC, which is recorded in the Roman Empire was captured in 100 BC, king of Pontus, Mithridates, but Mithridatesd 63 BC, Pompey was defeated and took over Cappadocia under the domination of Rome. During the period of Tiberius the Roman Cappadocia gainded space of the city.
Cappadocia was one of the most important in times of Christianity. The early Christians trying to escape from Roman soldiers, who wanted to avoid the spread of Christianity in the region have settled in Cappadocia, which was so suitable for hiding and then were able to continue to spread their nature and religion. San Basileious by the Kaiser, and St. Gregory of Nyssa had settled from Cappadocia. In 647 AC together with occupation of Kayseri Cappadocia Muaviye met with Arab attacks. Cappadocia which went under the domination of the Seljuks in 1072 has been added to the lands by the Ottoman Empire in 1399 the Ottoman sultan Yildirim Beyazit.
Forest birds Reed
Kayseri Erciyes Dagi and south of, or Sultansazligi Sultan Marshes is an extensive wetland area, which surrounds the Plain Develi. The road to Kayseri is a city Develi offers a very scenic drive following the Karasu River Tekir Yaylasi a popular ski resort located on the eastern side of Erciyes Dagi. The road descends the southern slopes of the mountain, where the Sultan Marshes ecosystem size, scattered throughout the majestic, snow-covered mountain. And ‘the closest, and the reeds swaying breeze and iridescent blue water sparkles in the sun and the masses of pink flamingos in the Yay Golu fury.
This wetland consists of two freshwater lakes covered with reeds, and Col Golu Egrigol, north and south of Develi plain Yay Golu a salt lake between them and the surrounding wetlands. It is the largest wetland ecosystem in Turkey and is fed by many springs and streams of the surrounding mountains. Its location at the time of three continents makes it an important breeding ground for birds and over 250 species found here. While the Sultan marshes are of particular interest to ornithologists, the flamingos Yay Golu is just as impressive for most travelers like Lake Nakuru in Kenya and Lake Manyara in Tanzania.
There is a watchtower on the Ovaciftlik just east of Kayseri-Nigde highway along the road connecting to Yahyali, a village where women weave carpets distinctive local patterns of world renown. Villages near Sindelhuyuk Develi Ovaciftlik and is convenient to take action to see the flamingos Yay Golu, but boat trips on various lakes are generally negotiated by one of the villages that surround the area.
Although underground ‘city’ the term of Cappadocia, was probably temporary or permanent refuge in the hidden city. Constant darkness is hardly conducive to life, and some passages are a little ‘more than crawl spaces, would be unsustainable in the long-term situations. No there is no certainty a number of underground communities exist, or even that they were built.
The two largest communities that have been excavated, are located on Kaymakli and Derinkuyu, 20 and 30 km. south of Nevsehir Nevsehir-Nigde road. It is believed that the Hittites may have excavated the lower levels of the rock where they were attacked by the Phrygians around 1200 BC. But some archaeologists believe that the oldest caves, those hewn with stone rather than metal tools, which are much older. These rooms were later extended to a complete cave complex by Christians escaping the Arab invasions of the 7th and 8th century.
Discrete inputs give way to elaborate systems of underground air with trees, tree waste, wells, chimneys and connection time. The higher levels were used for housing, while lower levels were used for storage, wine making, flour milling and worship in the chapels simple. Everywhere the walls were blackened by the use of torches. There is a tunnel connecting Kaymakli and Derinkuyu that allowed three people to go through the same time, but it is not available to the public through the tunnel collapsed.
0nly 10 kms. This is another Kaymakli Cavetown to Mazikoy that may be related to Derinkuyu but this remains to be demonstrated. This community was built in the walls of a cliff. Unlike Kaymakli and Derinkuyu, there are no stairs or classes of moving from one level to another. In contrast, the levels are well defined with connecting tunnels through which the people went up or abandoned by their own footholds carved into the walls of trees. Mazikoy is often ignored because it is a small community, its location is far from the main road and some flexibility is needed to fully appreciate its capabilities.
Cut Rock Churches and Monasteries
Many of the settlements in Cappadocia had been established primarily monastic communities. Bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in the 4 th century, St. Basil the Great wrote the rules of monastic life, which are still followed by monks and nuns of the Greek Orthodox Church. She claimed the life of the community, prayer and physical labor as a solitary asceticism that was popular at that time and it was his leadership that the first churches built in the valley of Goreme. This small communities, each with their churches, formed a large monastic complex which is now the Open Air Museum. Hundreds of churches are reported to have been built in this valley, but not in the churches of St. Basil of minutes. Goreme, Tokali Kilise or “Buckle Church” is easily the most beautiful churches, with arches and beautiful frescoes.
The monastery is the most impressive monastery in Cappadocia is Eskigumus Nigde Nigde-Kayseri road. It is the southernmost of the monasteries of Cappadocia and is close to the road that the Arabs invaders, which is crossed by the southern mountains of Tarsus in Kayseri looting in the seventh century. This road follows the river through a hastily called Tarsus Bogazi Gulek unclean. He was known in the ancient world as Gates, Cilicia, and was used by Alexander the Great in his campaign against the Persians East. The entrance to the monastery of any Eskigumus was designed to protect the monastery from passers attackers. It was so successful that the monastery was not discovered until 1963, having escaped the vandalism, which most churches and monasteries of Cappadocia were submitted. The large courtyard surrounded by high walls of the monastery boasts rooms and shops. The main church is spacious and airy, and well-preserved murals considered the best example of Byzantine art in all of Cappadocia.