Neolithic, Bronze Age, Middle Ages, Archaic Period, Classical Period, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine period (395-1071), when Turkish
The area surrounding Ephesus was already inhabited in the Neolithic (about 6000 BC), as revealed by excavations at the nearby Hoyuk (artificial mounds known as tells) of Arvalya and Cukurici.
Excavations in recent years have discovered settlements of the Bronze Age in the Hill Ayasuluk. In 1954 a cemetery of Mycenaean times (1500-1400 BC) with ceramic pots were discovered near the ruins of the Basilica of San Juan. This was the period of the Mycenaean Expansion when the Achaioi / Ἀχαιοί (as they were called by Homer) settled in Ahhiyawa during the 14 th and 13 centuries before Christ. Scholars believe that Ephesus was founded on APASA solution (or Abasa), a Bronze Age city found in the 14 th century BC Hittite sources as the land of Ahhiyawa.
Site of the Temple of Artemis in the town of Selcuk, near Ephesus.Ephesus was founded as an Attic-Ionian colony in the 10th century BC on the hill Ayasuluk, three miles from the center of ancient Ephesus (as evidenced by excavations in the Seljuk castle during the decade of 1990). The legendary founder of the city was a prince of Athens called Androklos, who had to leave their country after the death of his father, King Kadra. According to legend, he founded Ephesus on the place where the oracle of Delphi became reality (“A fish and a boar will show the way”). Androklos led most of the banking sector and Lelegian native inhabitants of the city and united his people with the rest. He was a successful warrior and a king who was able to join the twelve cities of Ionia, near the Ionian League. During his reign, the city began to prosper. He died in a battle against cavities when he came to the aid of Priene, another city of the Ionian League. Androklos and his dog are depicted on the Hadrian temple frieze, dating from the second century. Later, Greek historians such as Pausanias, Strabo, the Kallinen poet and the historian Herodotus reassigned mythological foundation of the city to Ephos, Queen of the Amazons.
The Greek goddess Artemis and the great goddess of Anatolia Kybele were identified together as Artemis of Ephesus. A lot of chest “Lady of Ephesus”, identified with Artemis, was venerated in the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the World and the largest building in the ancient world according to Pausanias. Pausanias mentions that the temple was built by Ephesus, son of the river god Caystrus before the arrival of the Ionians. In this structure, scarcely a trace.
Around 650 BC, Ephesus was attacked by the Cimmerians, who razed the city, including the temple of Artemis. When the Cimmerians had been expelled, the city was ruled by a succession of tyrants. After a revolt by the people, Ephesus was ruled by a council called Kuret. The city prospered again, producing a series of important historical figures such as Calino iambic poet and satirist Hiponacte, the philosopher Heraclitus, the great painter Parrasio and later the grammarian and medical Zenodotus Sorano and Rufus.
About 560 BC Ephesus was conquered by the Lydian king Croesus in. He treated people with respect, despite ruling harshly, and even became the main contributor to the rebuilding of the temple Artemis.His signature was found at the base of one of the pillars of the temple (now on display in the British Museum). Croesus was the population of the different settlements around Ephesus regroup (synoikismos) near the Temple of Artemis, the expansion of the city.
Later in the century, the Lydians in Croesus invaded Persia. The Ionians refused a peace offer from Cyrus the Great, on the side of the Lydians in place. After the Persians defeated Croesus the Ionians offered to make peace but Cyrus insisted that they surrender and become part of the empire. Harpagus were defeated by the Persian army commander in 547 BC. The Persians then incorporated the Greek cities of Asia Minor in the Achaemenid empire. These cities were then ruled by satraps.
Ephesus has intrigued archaeologists since for the Archaic Period, there is no definitive location for the solution. There are numerous sites to suggest the movement of an agreement between the Bronze Age and Roman times, but the silting up of natural harbors and river movement Kayster location means it never remains the same.
Ephesus continued to prosper. But when the tax is being raised under Cambyses II and Darius, the Ephesians participated in the Ionian Revolt against Persian rule in the Battle of Ephesus (498 BC), an event which instigated the Greco-Persian wars. In 479 BC, the Ionians, together with Athens and Sparta, were able to expel the Persians from the coast of Asia Minor. In 478 BC the Ionian cities entered with Athens and Sparta in the Delian League against the Persians. Ephesus did not contribute ships, but he gave financial support to provide the treasure of Apollo to the goddess Athena, protector of Athens.
During the Peloponnesian War, Ephesus was the first ally of Athens , but expensive at a later stage, called the Decel War, or the Ionian War with Sparta, which had also received support from the Persians. As a result, the rule over the cities of Ionia was handed back to Persia.
These wars did not much affect daily life in Ephesus. The Ephesians were surprisingly modern in their social relations. They allowed foreigners to integrate. Education was highly valued. Through the worship of Artemis, the city also became a bastion of women’s rights. Ephesus even had women artists. In later times Pliny mentions having seen at Ephesus a representation of the goddess Diana Timarata, the daughter of a painter.
In 356 BC the temple of Artemis was burned, according to legend, by a madman named Herostratus. The inhabitants of Ephesus, while he devoted himself to the restoration of the temple, and even planned a bigger and bigger than the original.
Historical Map of Ephesus, from Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1888When Alexander the Great defeated the Persian forces at the Battle of Granicus in 334 BC, the Greek cities of Asia Minor were liberated. The pro-Persian tyrant Syrpax and his family were stoned to death, and Alexander was greeted warmly in Ephesus when he entered in triumph. When Alexander saw the temple of Artemis was not yet over, he proposed to finance and have their name inscribed on the front. But the inhabitants of Ephesus objected, arguing that it was inappropriate for a god to build a temple to another. After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, Ephesus in 290 a. C. was under the control of one of Alexander’s generals, Lysimachus.
As the river Cayster (Κάϋστρος Grk. Name) clogging the port, the marsh as a result of deaths caused by malaria and many of the inhabitants. The people of Ephesus were forced to move to a new settlement two miles later, when King flooded the old city by blocking the sewers. This settlement was named after the king’s second wife, Arsinoe II of Egypt. After Lysimachus had destroyed the nearby cities of Lebed and Colophon in 292 a. C., its inhabitants moved to the new city.
Ephesus revolted after the treacherous death of Agathocles, giving the king of Syria and Mesopotamia Hellenistic Seleucus I Nicator an opportunity for removing and killing Lysimachus, his last rival, at the Battle of Corupedium in 281 BC. After the death of Lysimachus the city was again called Ephesus.
Thus, Ephesus became part of the Seleucid empire. After the assassination of King Antiochus II Theos and his Egyptian wife, Pharaoh Ptolemy III invaded the Seleucid Empire and the Egyptian fleet swept the coast of Asia Minor. Ephesus came under Egyptian rule between 263-197 BC.
When the Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great tried to regain the Greek cities of Asia Minor, who came into conflict with Rome. After a series of battles, was defeated by Scipio Asia in the battle of Magnesia in 190 BC. As a result, Ephesus came under the rule of King Attalus of Pergamum Eumenes II (197-133 BC). When his grandson Attalus III died without sons of his own, he left his kingdom to the Roman Republic.
Hadrian.Ephesus Temple became the subject of the Roman Republic. The city felt at once the Roman influence. Taxes rose considerably and the treasures of the city were systematically plundered. At 88 a. C. Ephesus welcomed Archelaus, general of Mithridates the Great, king of Pontus, when he conquered Asia (the Roman name for Western Asia Minor). This led to the Asian Vespers, the slaughter of 80,000 Roman citizens in Asia, or any other person who spoke with a Latin accent. Many had lived in Ephesus. But seeing how badly the people of Chios had been treated for Zenobio, a general of Mithridates, who was refused entry to his army. Zenobio was invited to the city to visit Philopoemen (the father of Monim, the favorite wife of Mithridates) and the supervisor of Ephesus. As the people expected nothing good from him, threw him in jail and killed him. Mithridates took revenge and inflicted terrible punishments. However, the Greek cities were given freedom and some important rights. Ephesus became, for a short time, self-government. When Mithridates was defeated in the first war against Mithridates by the Roman consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Ephesus came under Roman rule in 86 BC. Sulla imposed a huge indemnity, together with five years of back taxes, which left Asian cities heavily in debt for a long time.
When Augustus became emperor in 27 BC, he made Ephesus, Pergamum instead of the capital of proconsul of Asia, which covers the west of Asia Minor. Ephesus entered an era of prosperity. It became the seat of governor, becoming a metropolis and a major center of commerce. It was the second in importance and size only to Rome. Ephesus has been estimated to range from 400,000 to 500,000 in the year 100, which is the largest city in Roman Asia and of the time. Ephesus was at its peak during the first and second centuries AD.
The city was famous for the Temple of Artemis (Diana), his main shrine there, the Library of Celsus, and its theater, which was capable of holding 25,000 spectators. This open-air theater was used initially for drama, but during the time of the later Roman gladiatorial combat took place also in its infancy, with the first archaeological evidence of a gladiator cemetery in May 2007. The population of Ephesus also had several major bath complexes, built at various points while the city was under Roman rule. The city has one of the most advanced aqueduct systems in the ancient world, with multiple aqueducts of various sizes to supply different areas of the city, including four major aqueducts.
The city and the temple were destroyed by the Goths in 263 AD. This marked the decline of the splendor of the city.
Byzantine period (395-1071)
Ephesus remained the most important city in Asia, the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople in the fifth and sixth centuries. The emperor Constantine I rebuilt part of the city and erected a new public toilet. In 406 John Chrysostom, Archbishop of Constantinople, ordered the destruction of the Temple of Artemis. Emperor Flavius Arcadius raised the level of the street between the theater and the port. The Basilica of San Juan was built during the reign of Emperor Justinian in the sixth century.
The town was again partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614.
The city’s importance as a commercial center declined in the port silted up slowly by the river (today, Küçük Menderes) despite repeated dredging during the history of the city. (Currently, the harbor is 5 kilometers inland). The loss of its harbor caused Ephesus to lose its access to the Aegean Sea, which was important for trade. People started leaving the lowland of the city from the surrounding hills. The ruins of the temples were used as building blocks for new homes. marble sculptures were ground into powder to make lime plaster.
Layoffs by the Arabs for the first time in the year 654 to 655 by the caliph Muawiya I, and later at 700 and 716 hastened the decline.
When the Seljuk Turks conquered Ephesus in 1090, , which was a small town. The Byzantines resumed control in 1100 and changed the name of the town of Theologos Hagios. He kept control of the region until 1308. Crusaders passing by were surprised that there was only a small village called Ayasalouk, where there was a bustling city with a large seaport. Even the temple of Artemis was completely forgotten by the local population.
Isa Bey Mosque.The city was conquered in 1304 by Sasa Bey, an army commander of the Principality Menteþoðullarý. Shortly after, he was assigned to the Principality Aydýnoðullarý that a powerful navy stationed at the port of Ayasuluð (modern Selçuk, near Ephesus). Ayasoluk became an important port, where the organized armed incursions into the surrounding regions.
The town knew again a short flowering period during the 14th century under the new ruling Seljuks. They added important architectural works such as Ysa Bey Mosque, caravanserai, Turkish baths (hamam).
They were incorporated as vassals to the Ottoman Empire for the first time in 1390. The warlord of Central Asia Timur defeated the Ottomans in Anatolia in 1402, and the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I died in captivity. The region was restored to the beyliks Anatolia. After a period of unrest, the region was incorporated again in the Ottoman Empire in 1425.
Ephesus was eventually completely abandoned in the 15th century and lost its former glory. Nearby Ayasuluð was renamed Selçuk in 1914.