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Hierapolis, Pamukkale

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Hierapolis, Pamukkale

Hierapolis was established by King Eumenes 2 and was given the name of “Hiera” in the honour of the wife of  Telephos, the legendary establisher of the ancient Pergamum.

Hierapolis was visited frequently by the people from the nearest cities and Laodicea -the ancient site established before Hierapolis, for using the thermal springs known for its curing properties to several illnesses.

From the 3 BC, as the fame of Hierapolis increased continually, migrations started from around and Hierapolis became an attractive and a favorable settlement, a rival city to Laodicea.

Was given to the Roman Empire in 133 BC, in the will of Pergamon King, Attalos 2. The town was destroyed completely by an earthquake in 17AD, in the reign of Tiberious.

The re-construction of Hiera polis was started in 60 AD, during the reign of Nero. Hierapolis reached its high and lived the most prosperous periods during the reign of Severus and his son Caracalla, around the years of 196AD and 215AD. A substantial development existed in the city, in art and culture. Many rich marble mines were founded and the marbles of  Hierapolis were used in Hagia Sophia of Istanbul.

It was governed by a Roman governor of Ephesus, in the Roman period. Sources stated that the city was also visited by Hadrian. With the division of the Roman Empire into two in 395 AD, the city was ruled by the Byzantine. Hierapolis had become the capital of  Phyrigia during the reign of  Constantine.

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The acceptance of Christianity created a new stage for the social and religious structure of Hierapolis’ becoming a patriarchal center. Also, in 80 AD, St. Philip -one of the 12 Apostles, was thought to have been killed in Hierapolis.

The city lost its prior importance from the early of the 6th century, continuing to the 11th century. The dreadful earthquake in 1354 meant the city was emptied, totally and has not settled properly since that date, even in Turkish-Ottoman periods. The city was covered by the uncontrolled waters and travertine. Today the thermal waters of Hierapolis reached to its former fame and became an interesting touristical center for foreigners,  not reputed only for its thermal waters, but also for its various temples and social activities such as the lively festivals and music concerts, popular with all.

Therefore, tourism was one of the main incomes of Hierapolis, during that era. Textile was also developed gradually and had become the principal source of the city’s prosperity.

Hierapolis Photos

Pamukkale

Pamukkale, Hierapolis – Denizli, Turkey

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Pamukkale ( Cotton Castle ) Travertine Polls – Hierapolis

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Pamukkale is located in the Inner Aegean region at a distance of 20 km from the town of Denizli in Turkey.

Pamukkale (Hierapolis) translates to Cotton Castle.

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The great attraction is the white immensity of the cliff with sculptured basins full of water and congealed waterfalls; they seem done of snow, cloud, cotton.

Video include; Academic Information with photos Pamukkale, Hierapolis ( Mean Cotton Castle ) in TURKEY
[youtube 4196XlmyjnY]

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The scientific explanation is the hot thermal places that lie under the mount provoke the calcium carbonate spill, that makes the forms as solid as Travertino marble.

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The temperature of the water forming the travertines, which issues from the hot springs on the hills above, falls to around 33°C lower down.

Although the water flowing from the hot springs on the southern slopes of Çaldað rapidly loses heat during its flow through the open channels, it is still hot enough to make it possible for one to bathe (throughout six months of the year) in the open-air swimming pools and on the terraces.

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On emerging to the surface, the solution of calcium-carbonate in the spring water decomposes into carbon dioxide, calcium carbonate and water.

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The carbon dioxide is released into the air while the calcium carbonate separates off from the water to form a grayish-white limestone sediment.

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The beds of the water-courses are filled up with these limestone deposits and the water, confronted with these obstacles, splits up into several branches.

The water flows over the slopes into pools, the small basins surrounding them and finally into the fields below.

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It is in this way that these terraces over 100 m in height composed of layers of the accumulated limestone sediment have been gradually formed in the course of the ages.

As the limestone sediment reaches a certain level the water accumulates in pools and, as these pools fill up, overflows into smaller pools in the vicinity and from these flows into the small hollows and depressions around them.

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The limestone layers in the pools rise up in steps, one above the other, and the continual flow of water keeps this process in operation.
The stalactites form one of the most important features in the landscape.

With the formation of the layers and the emergence of steps and terraces one above the other, the water leaves the limestone deposit behind it and drips down in the form of stalactites, as in the Damlataþ caverns.

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The calcium oxide in the water adds to the thickness of the white layers and widens the terraces, producing pools in fantastic shapes reminiscent of oyster shells or flower petals, while the small amount of sulphur and iron oxide produces stripes of yellow, red and green over the white of the limestone.

As much the cascades of calcium carbonate as the water change color in accordance with changes of the solar light that illuminates them, and the effect is surprising.

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At times white, others blue, or green or other colors. The spectacle is flaring.

The continuous dynamics of the erosion and the transformation of the natural landscape result in an unusual environment.

PAMUKKALE is one of the most unique phenomena in nature.

We can call PAMUKKALE the 8th Wonder of the world.

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