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Ephesus Turkey

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Ephesus Turkey

The ancient city of Ephesus (Turkish: Efes), located near the Aegean Sea in modern day Turkey, was one of the great cities of the Greeks in Asia Minor and home to the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Today, the ruins of Ephesus are a major tourist attraction, especially for travelers on Mediterranean cruises. Ephesus is also a sacred site for Christians due to its association with several biblical figures, including St. Paul, St. John the Evangelist and the Virgin Mary. The religious history of ancient Ephesus was the subject of the webmaster’s thesis at Oxford (completed in June 2007), so this section is even more comprehensive than most – including the most detailed map of Ephesus on-line! Excerpts from the thesis are included among the background articles in this city guide – see the menu at left.

Ephesus is discovered in Selcuk, Izmir in western Turkey.Kusadasi is 19 km. far-off from Ephesus and Pamucak beach is 5 kilometres far-off from Ephesus.

The first site of Ancient Ephesus was most likely established around the Aegean coast, on the shores of that sea which is today located 8 km. away from the archaeological excavations.

Over the centuries, in fact, the rubble brought on to the plain of the “Kucuk Menderes” has enlarged the alluvial plain surrounding the historical zone, abandoning in fact the shores of the Aegean. In Roman times it absolutely was found on the northern slopes of the hills Coressus and Pion and south of the Cayster (Kucuk Menderes) River, the silt from which has since formed a fertile plain but is mainly responsible for the coastline to move ever farther west. In Roman times a sea channel was maintained with difficulty to a harbor well west of Pion. By late Byzantine times this channel had become useless, and the coast by the mid-20th century was three miles farther west.

Ephesus (Efes) is towards the town of Selcuk around an hour drive south of Izmir. Kusadasi will be the closest larger town, about 20km from Ephesus.

Site:

Ephesus was constructed on a river bend, that was eventually dredged right full harbor near the mount of the Cayster River, on the western coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). Along the coastal plain between Smyrna to the north and Miletus to the south, the positioning has become about six miles on the Aegean Sea. The town shifted in five distinct locations over time, each within a small area. The Apostles Paul and John were informed about the location that scholars have dubbed “Ephesus III” the largest (in area) of the five.

Areas where Ephesus situated on the following:

Ephesus I: Aya Suluk (St. John Area);
Ephesus II: Artemission area;
Ephesus III: Port of St. Paul: base of Mount Koressos;
Ephesus IV: north of Aya Suluk;
Ephesus V: Selcuk area.

Due to the man-made harbor structure and also the flow of the river, a backwash flow caused the harbor to frequently silt up (by 449 BCE we already read of problems documented about the silting. Later, Eusebius records that Ephesus honoured Emperor Hadrian for dredging and making navigable the harbor). When cleared, Ephesus was in a location that justified a great seaport. The city sat at the convergence of three land routes which includes a shipping lane on the north via the channel created by the Island of Chios and an opening facing the cities of Macedonia.

The land routes that incorporated on Ephesus included:

1) The Colossae / Laodicea road (traveling east),
2) The road to Sardis and Galatia (northeast), and
3) The Smyrna (north) main road.

Population:

Some scholars estimate how many people living at Ephesus to obtain exceeded 250,000 inhabitants during Ephesus III, which would make it maybe the fourth largest of their day behind:

1) Rome;
2) Alexandria; and
3)An Antioch. This massive a town was a fiscal stronghold in Asia Minor, and justified the title supreme metropolis of Asia though it comes with an evidence that its overall financial standing might have been slowly and gradually declining.

Mardin, Turkey

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Mardin Turkey

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The town is located on the slope of a hill looking down south to the Mesopotamian plains. Mardin is on the rail and highway routes connecting Turkey to Syria and Iraq.  According to a hearsay, the history of the city dates as far back as the Flood.

The city lived within the rule of the Hurri-Mitani, Hittites, Surs, Babylonians, Persians, Romans, Arabs and the Seljuk Turks. Later, the Mardin branch of the Artuklu Kingdom called “Tabaka Ilgaziyye” was established and the city flourished during this time.

The city used to be known as “Marde” by the Persians, “Mardia” by the Byzantine, “Maridin” by the Arabs and “Merde-Merdo-Merdi” by the Syriac. These were transformed into “Mardin” after the area was occupied by the Turks.

The fortress, Kasimiye Medresse, Zinciriye Medresse and Grand Mosque are important historical sites around the city. Other historical assets in the area worth seeing include Dayrul-Zeferan Monastery and Harizm Medresse.

Dating from 1385, the Sultan Isa Medresse is an interesting, beautiful Turkish monument with its magnificent carved portal.

The Kasim Pasa Medresse, is also significant for its dome of beautiful stonework and the Ulu (Grand) Mosque with its well-decorated minaret, is another sightseeing spot.

The very best instances of Artutid architecture can be seen at Kiziltepe, 21 kilometers south of Mardin, with the 13th century Ulu Mosque with its fine mihrap relief and beautifully decorated portal.

At Hasankeyf which is on the borderline with Batman province, you will see the ruins of the ancient 12th century capital of the Artutids. The bridge which once connected the two parts of the city over the Tigris (Dicle) river and the palace, are others. Hasankeyf will be completely flooded whenever they will finish the nearby dam, a part of GAP Project.

The 15th century Zeynel Bey Mausoleum nearby, is attractively decorated with blue tiles.

Deyr’ul Zafaran Monastery is a Syriac monastery 9 kilometers to the east of Mardin, built in the 9th century. At the present time, it is a visit place and a shelter for impoverished Syriacs.

The monastery had been a religious centre for the Syriac until 1932. One of the biggest of many monasteries existing in the region, Deyr’ul Zafaran has 52 Syriac Patriarchs buried here. The secret section for worshipping called “mahzen” is the oldest part of the monastery.

The monastery was enlarged with additional sections built later. Around the structures which form a trinity with Deyr’ul Zafaran, Church of Virgin Mary and Mar Yakup Monastery, there are three fortresses built for protecting the trinity.

Mar Yakup Monastery derives its name from a priest (Marislium). It was later known as “Marevgan Monastery”. Based on a hearsay, Marbinyamin, one of the heralds of the east had the bones of his oldest disciple buried here. The monastery was also knows as “Marhonesya” for a time.

Mardin Turkey

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The museum is housed in the former patriarchate constructed in 1895 by the Patriarch of Antakya, Ignatios Benham Banni. Now restored to its original condition, the dwelling houses collections dating from 4000 BC up to the present day and representing the Assyrian, Urartian, Hellenistic, Persian, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk, Artuklu and Ottoman periods. Pottery, seals, cylinder seals, coins, lamps, figurines, teardrop bottles, and jewelry are among the many and fascinating exhibits.

Mardin has preserved the old-style carving in its houses. Since located in a volcanic area, the basic input used in local architecture is easily workable calcareous rock. Houses in Mardin, reflecting all top features of a closed-in life style are surrounded by 4 meters high walls and isolated from the street. These walls provide protection from harsh climatic conditions.

Houses have their separate sections for men and women and mostly have no kitchen. The most crucial feature of these houses is the stone craftsmanship called “Midyat Work”. Doors, windows and small columns are dressed with arches and various motif.

The central settlement was given the status of urban site area in 1979. Above the house doors are carved pictures of the Kaaba if the owner has made the pilgrimage to Mecca, and the door knockers have a distinctive form resembling the beaks of birds.

Mardin Turkey

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Often the lanes run through arched tunnels beneath the upper floors of houses. Relief carvings of animals and fruit lend the city a dream-like character, and the modern world appears to disappear.

Syrian Orthodox gold and silver smiths whose work is famous through the entire country still practice their craft here, their workshops alongside with those of Muslim copper smiths. Along with the buildings themselves, it is to be hoped that this living culture can also be preserved.

Having a provincial territory of 12,760 square kilometers, Mardin is located in the area where the Southeastern Taurus Range meets the Arabian platform to the south. The area called “Mardin-Midyat Passage” produces a large part of the territory of the province.

The population is 646,826 (1997 Census). Mardin’s administrative districts are Dargecit, Derik, Kiziltepe, Mazidagi, Midyat, Nusaybin, Omerli, Savur and Yesilli.

Upon the conclusion of GAP Project, 100,000 hectares of land will be brought under irrigation in Mardin. Newly irrigated areas will mainly grow cotton which is to be processed by enterprises in the Organized Industrial Zone. Besides flour products, fruit processing and seed production, Mardin will also process its local grapes.

A part of the phosphorus fertilizers which crop farming needs will be provided by the fertilizer industries existing in the province.

Besides an arranged Industrial Zone, Mardin also has a site for small enterprises which offer employment to 1,140 persons with its approximately 190 work places. Finally, Mardin also has its Free Trade Zone.

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