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Hierapolis, Pamukkale

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Hierapolis, Pamukkale

Hierapolis was established by King Eumenes 2 and was given the name of “Hiera” in the honour of the wife of  Telephos, the legendary establisher of the ancient Pergamum.

Hierapolis was visited frequently by the people from the nearest cities and Laodicea -the ancient site established before Hierapolis, for using the thermal springs known for its curing properties to several illnesses.

From the 3 BC, as the fame of Hierapolis increased continually, migrations started from around and Hierapolis became an attractive and a favorable settlement, a rival city to Laodicea.

Was given to the Roman Empire in 133 BC, in the will of Pergamon King, Attalos 2. The town was destroyed completely by an earthquake in 17AD, in the reign of Tiberious.

The re-construction of Hiera polis was started in 60 AD, during the reign of Nero. Hierapolis reached its high and lived the most prosperous periods during the reign of Severus and his son Caracalla, around the years of 196AD and 215AD. A substantial development existed in the city, in art and culture. Many rich marble mines were founded and the marbles of  Hierapolis were used in Hagia Sophia of Istanbul.

It was governed by a Roman governor of Ephesus, in the Roman period. Sources stated that the city was also visited by Hadrian. With the division of the Roman Empire into two in 395 AD, the city was ruled by the Byzantine. Hierapolis had become the capital of  Phyrigia during the reign of  Constantine.

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The acceptance of Christianity created a new stage for the social and religious structure of Hierapolis’ becoming a patriarchal center. Also, in 80 AD, St. Philip -one of the 12 Apostles, was thought to have been killed in Hierapolis.

The city lost its prior importance from the early of the 6th century, continuing to the 11th century. The dreadful earthquake in 1354 meant the city was emptied, totally and has not settled properly since that date, even in Turkish-Ottoman periods. The city was covered by the uncontrolled waters and travertine. Today the thermal waters of Hierapolis reached to its former fame and became an interesting touristical center for foreigners,  not reputed only for its thermal waters, but also for its various temples and social activities such as the lively festivals and music concerts, popular with all.

Therefore, tourism was one of the main incomes of Hierapolis, during that era. Textile was also developed gradually and had become the principal source of the city’s prosperity.

Hierapolis Photos

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Library of Celsus, Ephesus

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Library of Celsus, Ephesus The Library of Celsus is a Roman mausoleum and library created in the early 2nd century AD. As one of the most beautifully reassembled buildings in Ephesus, it has become an icon of the ancient metropolis. History

The Library of Celsus was comissioned by the Consul Julius Aquila as a mausoleum for his father, Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, Roman governor of the Asian Provinces. It may be that Celsus was awarded daring honors, which would furthur rationalise the expense.

The monument was constructed between 110 and 135 AD, after which Celsus was smothered in a niche on the right side of the back wall. With a few 100’s of years of its manufacturing a fire demolished the studying room and the library fell into disuse. Around four hundred AD, the courtyard below the exterior steps was changed into a pool. The fakeness collapsed in an earthquake in the tenth hundred years.

The Library of Celsus was increased from the rubble to its present outstanding state by F. Hueber of the Austrian Historical Institute between the early 70’s and 1978. What to See Located next to the south gate, the Library of Celsus is 21m wide and over 16m high with a 2.4m-deep portico.

The mausoleum-library originally had three stories, with galleries in the upper two stories. Scrolls and codexes were stored in the niches, dispensed by a librarian. In total, 30 bookcases held about 12,000 scrolls. The reading room faced east in order to take advantage of the best light.

The lower niches of the facade contain four statues, which are through to represent Wisdom, Knowledge, Destiny, and Intelligence. These are replicas of the originals that are now in Vienna. Latin and Greek inscriptions can be seen amongst the ruins of the library