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Ottomans


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Ottomans

Named after its founder, Osman Bey, the Ottomans were resolved at the beginning of a large tribe Sogut 600 years old empire.

Osman Bey was born about 1258, son of Ertugrul Gazi. In 1284 the Anatolian Sultan Osman Bey Seldjuk recognized chief of the tribe. At the same time, Anatolia was Seldjuks reduce the time and could not resist the attacks Ilhanlis, Khan Cengis boys in Iran. This is a tragic situation as the people and the tribes of Anatolia in a state of mind very chaotic and unstable. Seldjukian Anatolian Sultan Osman II Giyaseddin Mesut Bey was restricted by placing the ruler of the tribe its limit.

Byzantium was bored with the struggles for the throne and be attacked by the princes and kings of the Balkans. The Greek beys called “Tekfur” are not obedient to the rule and the people were unhappy with high taxes. Osman Bey used the poor and invaded Byzantine Greek cities Karacahisar Tekhfurs, Bilecik and İnegöl Yarhisar. On the other hand, encourages the success of Osman Sultan Alaeddin Seljuk Anatolia III. He Inonu Eskisehir cities and during the reign of Osman in 1289. Alaaddin When III was transferred to Iran and killed by Sultan Mahmut Han Ilhanli Gaza, lack of authority in Anatolia Seljuk caused independence from the Ottomans in 1300 and coined money Osman Bey.

In 1301, and became Yenisehir Kopruhisar Yenisehir Byzantine conquered and became the Ottoman capital. The process of Osman Bey for creating a strong state is Tekhfurs and the Byzantine Empire united against him. Tekhfurs Bursa Kestel Orhaneli and attack on the Ottomans Koyunhisar “in 1302, which became known as the first war between the Byzantines and Ottomans ended with the victory of the Ottomans. Bursa was surrounded, step by step, after the game. The city received its tekhfur in 1326 to Orhan Bey, the son of Osman Bey.

Pressed from their homes in the Asian steppes, the Mongols, the nomadic tribes Turks converted to Islam during the eighth and ninth centuries. From the tenth century, one of the Turkic tribes, the Seljuk, had become a significant power in the Islamic world, and had accepted the sedentary lifestyle that included Islamic orthodoxy, the central government, and taxation. In addition, many other Turkish groups remained nomadic and continue the tradition of Gazi, tried to conquer the land of Islam, and to acquire war booty for themselves. This brought them into conflict with the Seljuk Turks, and soothes the nomadic tribes, Seljuks directed them to the eastern domain of the Byzantine Empire, Anatolia. Tribes known as the Ottomans was the lowest in the UAE was established in northwestern Anatolia after 1071 was named after Osman Dynasty (1259-1326), who has begun to expand its Byzantine Empire in Asia Minor, moving his capital to Bursa in 1326

The political and geographical entity governed by Muslim Ottoman Turks. Their empire was centered in present-day Turkey, and expanded its influence in southeastern Europe and the Middle East. Europe has been temporarily able to resist their advance: the turning point occurred at the Battle of Varna in 1444, when an army of the European coalition has not stopped the Turkish advance. Only Constantinople (Istanbul) remained in the hands of Byzantium and its conquest in 1453 seemed inevitable after Varna. The Turks subsequently established an empire in Anatolia and southeastern Europe which lasted until the early twentieth century.

Although the Ottoman Empire is not considered a European kingdom per se, Ottoman expansion had a profound impact on a continent already stunned by the calamities of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and the Ottoman Turks should be considered in any study of Europe in the Middle Media. The ease with which the Ottoman Empire achieved military victories led Western Europeans fear the continued success of the Ottoman collapse of the political and social infrastructure of the West and the decline of Christianity. The main threat can not be ignored and the Europeans mounted crusades against the Ottomans in 1366, 1396 and 1444, but in vain. The Ottomans continued to conquer new territories.

One of a number of Turkish tribes that migrated from the steppes of Central Asia, the Ottomans were originally a nomadic people who followed a shamanistic religion primitive. Contact with different peoples settled led to the introduction of Islam and under Islamic influence, the Turks acquired their greatest battle tradition, the warrior of Gazi. Well educated and highly skilled, warriors fought to conquer the infidel Gazi, the acquisition of land and wealth in the process.

While the warriors fought for Islam Gazi, the biggest military asset of the Ottoman Empire was the standing army attention of Christian soldiers, the Janissaries. Originally created in 1330 by Orhan Gazi, the Janissaries were Christian captives from the conquered territories. Educated in the Islamic faith and trained as soldiers, the Janissaries were obliged to provide annual tribute in the form of military service. To meet the challenges of Gazi nobility, Murad I (1319-1389) became the new military force in the sultan’s elite military personnel. They were rewarded for their loyalty to the granting of newly acquired land Janissaries grew rapidly to cover the most important administrative positions in the Ottoman Empire.

During the early history of the Ottoman Empire, political factions within Byzantium employed the Ottoman Turks and the Janissaries as mercenaries in their own struggles for imperial supremacy. In 1340, a usurper for help in a revolt against the Ottoman emperor provided the excuse for an Ottoman invasion of Thrace on the northern border of the Byzantine Empire. The conquest of Thrace gave the Ottomans a foothold in Europe from which future campaigns in the Balkans and Greece were launched and Adrianople (Edirne) became the Ottoman capital in 1366. During the next century, the Ottomans developed an empire in Anatolia and was growing sectors of the Byzantine territories in Eastern Europe and Asia Minor.

The Ottoman expansion in Europe was well underway in the late 14th century. Gallipoli was conquered in 1354 and a great crusade army was crushed at the battle of Nicopolis in 1396th The disaster was so great that the knights of Western Europe has been discouraged to launch a new expedition against the Turks. The appearance of the Tatars of Tamerlane in the early fifteenth century temporarily delayed Turkish advances but the Ottomans soon resumed attacks against Byzantium and Eastern Europe. A Hungarian – Polish army was decimated at Varna in 1444 by Murad II, Ottoman conquests were virtually unchecked during the reign of his son, Mehmed II the Conqueror (1432-1481).

Constantinople itself was captured in 1453, sending shock waves across Europe, and its name was changed to Istanbul. With the wave in the fall of Byzantine Byzantine refugees fled to the Latin West, bringing classical and Hellenistic knowledge, provided further impetus to the nascent humanism of the Renaissance.

Athens fell in 1456 in Belgrade, and narrowly escaped capture when a peasant army led by the Hungarian Janos Hunyadi held a place in the same year, however, Serbia, Bosnia, Wallachia and the Khanate of Crimea were all under the Ottoman control in 1478. The Turks controlled the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea in the north and the first of many trade routes were closed to European shipping. The Islamist threat was even more when an Ottoman beachhead was established in Otranto, Italy in 1480.

Although the Turkish presence in Italy was short-lived, it seemed as if Rome itself must soon fall into Islamist hands. In 1529, the Ottomans had moved the Danube and the siege of Vienna. The siege was unsuccessful and the Turks began to retreat. Although the Ottomans continued to instill fear both in the 16th century, internal struggles began to deteriorate when the overwhelming military superiority of the Ottoman Empire. The result of the fighting was not a fatality and the Europeans began to win victories against the Turks.

Despite the military success of their territorial expansion, there were problems of organization and government of the Ottoman Empire. Murad II attempted to limit the influence of the nobility and Gazi by lifting former slaves and faithful Janissaries to administrative positions. These administrators came to provide an alternative voice to the nobility, and therefore subsequent sultans Murad II and able to play one faction against the other, a typical characteristic that came to the Ottoman Empire. The effect of Janissaries often violated a weak sultan and the elite military force sometimes acted as “kingmakers”.

Another weakness is that primogeniture was not used in Islam and the transfer of power from a deceased sultan to his son was frequently disputed. When the sultan died without a male heir or if he left several sons, succession was violently contested. In the first period, so that the actual competition, all male relatives newly crowned sultan was killed. Later, however, potential rivals were merely imprisoned for life. Some historians argue that this policy of imprisonment contributed to the decline of the Ottoman sultans were rescued mentally unstable and politically inexperienced from prison and placed on the throne. However, despite frequent disputes over succession, the Ottoman Empire managed to produce effective leader of the late Middle Ages and a comprehensive government policy developed.

Despite the difficulties of succession and administrative control, the Ottomans had a number of advantages that have contributed to its success, the enormous wealth of the empire is the most important asset. As the Ottoman Empire expanded, acquired control of trade routes from eastern European powers and many others, such as Venice and Genoa, paid large sums for the privilege of access to these routes.

While the atrocities of the “infidel turkish”, has struck fear into the hearts of all Christians in the late Middle Ages, in fact, the Ottomans generally allowed religious groups to continue to practice their religion in the conquered territories. They also tend to maintain the feudal institutions created, and in many cases, the codes allowed by law to regulate the coexistence of different ethnic and religious groups. Their administrative systems and government were well developed and highly efficient, and most countries in the Ottoman control were well cared for during this period.

Category:About Turkey

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