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Ancient Greece

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The ancient Greeks were a singular people. They deemed that individuals ought to be free once they acted inside the laws of Greece. greece culture

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Ancient Greece

The ancient Greece (mainly the Athenians) were a singular people. They deemed that individuals ought to be free once they acted inside the laws of Greece. This allowed them the opportunity to score well in any direction they chose. Individuality, on the grounds that the Greeks viewed it, was the basis with their society.

The ability to shoot for excellence, no matter what the challenge, was what the Athenians so dearly supported. This shoot for excellence was the method from which they achieved such phenomenal accomplishments. These accomplishments astound us to this day. Additionally, they supported the balance of mind and body.

Although a lot of of which strove being soldiers and athletes, others ventured into philosophy, drama, pottery along with the arts. The two most important concepts that the ancient Greeks followed put together inscribed about the great shrine of Delphi, which read “Nothing in excess” and “Know thyself”. This philosophy greatly affected the Greek civilization.

Athens was the mental center of Greece. It was one of the first city-states of its time, and is still world renowned as the most well-known cities on the globe. It was named after Athena, the goddess of wisdom as well as city’s patron. In 508 BC, Athens became among the initial societies in history to establish democracy. Democracy originated from the Greek words, demos, meaning people, and kratein, meaning to rule. This form of government was used within a meeting place that the Greeks known as the Assembly. Here the individuals of Athens met monthly and reviewed the affairs of state. There have been no decisions made by govt without first asking the Assembly.

Ancient Greece Map

The state of Greece is located in southeastern Europe, on the southern end from the Balkanic peninsula. Greece is encircled about the north by Bulgaria, the FYROM and Albania; to the west from the Ionian Sea; towards the south through the Mediterranean Sea and the east with the Aegean Sea. The state ranges somewhere around in latitude from 35°00’N to 42°00’N and longitude from 19°00’E to 28°30’E. Consequently, it has substantial weather variation, as discussed below.

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The country includes a large landmass;the Peloponnese, a peninsula connected to the mainland by the Isthmus of Corinth; and around 3000 islands, including Crete, Rhodes, Corfu, the Dodecanese and the Cyclades. Greece has 15000 km’s (9300 miles) of coastline. 80% of Greece is mountainous, and also the country is likely one of the most mountainous countries of Europe. Western Greece contains lakes and wetlands. The Pindus Mountains lie from the country’s center, by having an average elevation of 2650 m. They continue because the islands of Kythera, Antikythera and result in the islands of Crete and Rhodes.

Ancient Greece Religion

Historic Ancient Greek faith was polytheistic, significance that there were many gods and actresses. There was a structure of deities, with Zeus, the master of the gods, having a stage of management over all the others. Each deity usually had dominion over a certain element of dynamics, for example, Poseidon determined over the sea and Artemis determined over the Celestial satellite. Other deities determined over an summary idea, for example Aphrodite was the goddess of Really like. Some gods were also particularly associated with a certain town. In particular, Athena was associated with the town of Athens, Apollo with Delphi and Delos, Zeus with Olympia, and Artemis with Ephesus.

Whilst being underworld, the gods were not all highly effective. They had to respect luck, which overrided all. In particular, in mythology, it was Odysseus‘ luck to go back house to Ithaca after the Trojan viruses War, and the gods could only expand his voyage and create it tougher for him, but they could not end him.

The most highly effective gods were known as the Olympians, of which there were 12. They were considered to stay at the top of Support Olympus. The 12 deities were Zeus, god of magic and the sky, Hera, goddess of the loved ones, Poseiden, god of the sea, Demeter, goddess of the Soil and bounty, Ares, god of War, Hermes, god of business, Hephaestus, god of metalcraft, Aphrodite, goddess of affection, Athena, goddess of people, Artemis, goddess of the Celestial satellite, Hestia, goddess of the house, and Apollo, god of lumination. Though there were also many other essential ‘lesser’ dieties, such as Dionysis, the god of wines, and Asclepius, the god of remedies.

Historic Ancient greek photos

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Towards the end of the Established Age and during the Hellenistic Age, a variety of Historic Greek philosophers started to concern the conventional mythologies of their forefathers and provide substitute hypotheses to the source of the galaxy. Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) postulated the everyday living of 1 substantial being usually known in his publication Metaphysics as the “Prime Mover” or the “Unmoved Mover”, though whether he meant to mean that the “Prime Mover” was really a aware being or a power of dynamics is start to decryption.

Ancient Greece Government

Pericles was the best choice of Athens for thirty years. He wasn’t a monarch or despot. The people of Athens elected him year after year. He declared that Athens was a democracy. In Athens, power was “in the hands of several as opposed to the few.” Pericles was correct about stating that Athens would have been a democracy after that. Compared to other ancient governments, Athens was democratic, nevertheless it won’t seem that way today. When he spoke of government from the people, he needs said government through the citizens.

Citizens had more rights in Greeks cities than any of the others. They could do just about anything they desired to do. They could own property, indulge in politics additionally, the law. Most in the men in Greece were citizens, but women, slaves, and foreigners would not be. In Sparta only rich men were citizens. Citizenship was being a family. It trusted birth. Only kids of citizens could be citizens them selves. Children that lived in Athens all of their lives are not citizens if their parents originated other places. Athens seems undemocratic to us because women didn’t have voice in government.

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Slaves were normally captured prisoners of wars. They were sold to individuals and whoever bought them owned them. Some slaves lived good lives with their owners. Others lived in terrible conditions or toiled in mines until death. Unlike slaves in America, slaves in Greece got paid and in case they saved their funds they might be capable to buy their own freedom.

Athens’ growing power startled Sparta. War broke out between Sparta and Athens in 413 B.C. Even though Athens was powerful at sea, Sparta was more powerful on land. For this reason, this war, referred to as the Peloponnesian War, has been called a fight involving the elephant along with the whale.

Both Sparta and Athens attemptedto get support from the Persians in the course of the Pelopenesian War. The Persian were thrilled to see Greeks fighting both and supported Sparta with money for ships. As soon as Sparta shaped a fleet, they defeated the Athenians in 405 B.C. The end of your Pelopennesian War didn’t mean a long duration of peace in Greece. Arguments and quarrels still thorough among for an additional 50 years.

Ancient Greece Clothing

Ancient Greek clothing was sometimes homemade and the same piece of homespun fabric that’s used as a type of garment, or blanket. From Greek vase pictures and sculptures, you can tell the fabrics were bitterly colored and usually decorated with elaborate designs.

Clothing for men and women contains two main garments-a tunic (the peplos or chiton) as well as a cloak (himation). The peplos would be a large rectangle of heavy fabric, usually wool, folded over over the upper edge so your over fold (apoptygma) would reach to your waist. It was placed throughout the body and fastened at the shoulders with a pin or brooch. There were armholes were on each side, and the open side on the garment was either left that way, or pinned or sewn to create a seam.

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The chiton was made of a much lighter material, normally linen. It was obviously a very long and incredibly wide rectangle of cloth sewn up at the sides, pinned or sewn with the shoulders, and frequently girded round the waist. Usually the chiton was wide enough to allow for sleeves which are fastened along the upper arms with pins or buttons. The peplos and chiton were floor-length garments that were usually enough time to be stopped the belt, making a pouch known as a kolpos. Under either garment, a girl may need worn a soft band, known as a strophion, throughout the mid-section on the body.

Men in ancient Greece typically wore a chiton just like the one worn by women, but knee-length or shorter. An exomis (a quick chiton fastened on the left shoulder) was worn for exercise, horse riding, or hard labor. The himation (cloak) worn by men and women was in essence a rectangular piece of heavy fabric, either woolen or linen. It was draped diagonally over one shoulder or symmetrically over both shoulders, like a stole.

Women sometimes wore an epiblema (shawl) on the peplos or chiton. Teenagers often wore a chlamys (short cloak) for riding. Greek men often wore a broad-brimmed hat (petasos), and also on rare occasions, Greek women put on a flat-brimmed one which has a high peaked crown.

Ancient Greece Olympics

The first noted Olympic Games took location in Olympia, in the wonderful location of Elias, in 776 BC. There is proof however, to aid the state that the games had been developing a lot previously than 776 BC, but these were not as sorted or used every four decades, as the 776 BC games had been.

The name of each Olympiad was known as after the competition of the arena competition, which was the most popular of all the activities. The first Olympiad was known as Koroibos of Elias, as he was the success of the arena competition in 776 BC.

Olympia was, and still is, a wonderful location, and many temples or wats and sculptures were designed. These were all designed in commitment to Zeus, the Dad of all Gods. Olympia also became a hub for faith in the Mycenaean interval.

The temples or wats that were designed in Olympia were all for a purpose, and were of significance. The brow of Zeus, had as its centerpiece, a precious metal and cream color sculpture of Zeus. Status at about 12 measures in size, the sculpture was very amazing.

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The sculpture, created by Phidias, was seen as one of the seven like a charm of the historic community. Also near to the brow of Zeus, was the outrageous olive shrub from which the wreath caps were created and offered to the victors of the activities. Star has it, this shrub was placed by Herakles (Hercules).

In the starting, the games contains only one occurrence, the managing of the arena, and survived for just one day. However, towards the 5th millennium, the games were prolonged to five times, and more activities were also included.

From 729 BC the contributors of the games had to contend in the unclothed to avoid any being disloyal, and also in the attention of protection. Formerly, only Greeks created men, who had not dedicated homicide or heresy, where granted to take aspect in the games. However, later on, Romans were also authorized to take aspect. Females were unacceptable to contend, and were even suspended from coming into the arena to enjoy the games.

Ancient Greek Food

The ancient Greeks had rather weird and uncommon ideas about their meals. All the meals in ancient Greece revolved around their religious beliefs and philosophical theories. The Greeks never consumed the meat of a domesticated animal, as they considered it to be barbaric. The only meat that was consumed was that of the animals that were either first scarified to god, or were hunted in the wild. The Greeks also never consumed milk in its raw form. The milk was first processed into normal cheese or cottage cheese and then consumed. In the ancient Greek food facts, it is often seen that the Greeks never consumed anything that was a part of the barbarian, nomads and the non-Greek diets.

The eating pattern of the ancient Greeks was also a bit different. The first meal of the day was the breakfast, that was eaten early in the morning. Large amounts of bread, vegetables and soups were used in this meal. The second meal was an early lunch, where again bread and vegetables were occasionally accompanied by meat or fish. Cheese and olives were used in generous quantities in these meals. The supper that was relished in the evening itself, was the main meal of the day. A majority of times, the supper consisted of many different fruits, vegetables, wines and bread. The following are some of the prominent ancient Greek food ingredients.

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Although greatly affected by other historic countries over the decades, historic Ancient greek meals, and basic baking methods have changed very little over time. Ancient Greeks treated refreshments as a kind of art form, and the cooks of the day were very much well known.

Typical historic Ancient greek baking requirements are bread, olives, olive oil, figs, local natural cheese, created from the take advantage of of local domestic farm animals, such as goat’s which are in large quantity and easily kept on the hilly and difficult environment.

Ancient Ancient greek Foods LemonsSheep and hogs are kept by local farm owners too. Chicken is left to walk in peace and the natural egg are fresh and delightful.

Local bottles of wine created from the local fruit which are produced, including ouzo, an aniseed type heart which gardening years have improved the formulas over decades, and vegetables which have been produced from the ground of local areas and almost all are naturally produced without the use of bug sprays.

Included in these historic Ancient greek meals requirements are local within a and delightful fish, caught in the ocean surrounding landmass Portugal and the individual islands.

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Greek gods: ZEUS, King of the Gods

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Greek gods: ZEUS, King of the Gods

Zeus Name

Unlike many Greek deities, the origin of the name of Zeus are indisputable. “Zeus” is connected to a Dyeus ancient Indo-European deity, which roughly translates as ‘heaven’, ‘day’ (as opposed to night) and ‘clear’. All these points to its role as a god of the heavens, the sky and thunder.

Iconography

As king of the Greek gods, Zeus is constantly portrayed in art, often with specific aspects or symbols to identify him and his purpose. For example, early classical vase paintings often show him hurling thunderbolts, which identified him as a mighty warrior god, member of Hephaestus the god of the forge and the manufacturer of lightning.

However, as the classical period progressed, it became fashionable to describe Zeus seated on a throne holding a scepter, often accompanied by the goddess Nike, symbolizing his role as king and the patriarch of the gods. It is important to note, however, that Zeus was not regarded as a tyrant and literature presents it as fair and impartial, especially considering that one of its functions mani was lord of Justice.

Regardless of their specific iconography, Zeus is always depicted as an imposing man, fully grown and with a beard – that indicates their status as patriarch of the Olympic family experience, unlike other male deities such as Apollo and Hermes, which often depicted as young men (efebos), beardless, erotically attractive, but not powerful. the power of Zeus is indicated by the symbols of the eagle, bull and oak adult.

Birth

Before the Greek pantheon of gods who are familiar with the Olympus ruled on a previous generation of deities, known as the Titans held on to power. The rule of these divine beings was Cronos, son of Gaia (Mother Earth). Crono’s mother had informed him that he would be usurped by one of his sons would be tremendously powerful. Therefore, each time Rhea Cronus wife gave birth to a child who would swallow the infant god to avoid tipping their power.

Birth of Zeus Part 1

 

Birth of Zeus Part 2

Having swallowed Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades and Poseidon, Cronos was deceived by his wife, love for his son, Zeus led a secret, while offering a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes to Kronos in place of the baby. Sources differ as to the upbringing of Zeus, some say he was raised by Gaia, others by the nymph Metis, others maintain that he was raised by the goat Amalthea! In any case, all sources agree that when he was fully grown, Zeus returned to Mount Olympus to confront his father.

Void Zeus Cronos

Again, sources conflict on the details of the encounter between Zeus and Cronus, some say Metis emetic administered a drug so that Cronos devoured his children vomit, while others say that Zeus open the womb of his father free their brothers and sisters.

Zeus proceeded to release the Giants (100 giants of the hand), Cyclops (giant eye) and Hecatonchires (three giants, each with fifty heads), all the brothers of Cronus whom the tyrant had imprisoned in Tartarus. In gratitude for their freedom, the Cyclopes gave Zeus the knowledge of how to craft rays. Armed with these weapons and the help of their brothers and sisters, as well as the giants in the wild, Zeus, declared war on the Titans (this battle is popularly known as the Titans).

The Titans were defeated and consigned to Tartarus to be punished for eternity in the custody of the Giants. Atlas, however, was selected for special punishment as it had been the joint leader of the Titans (with Cronos) and Zeus was forced to bear the weight of the SJK on his shoulders forever. Not all of the generation side of the Titans Cronus, Oceanus, remained neutral, and Promethius is said to have been of great help to Zeus.

Having usurped the ancient gods, Zeus is established as the king of Olympus and lord of heaven, the delegation of domains to their brothers (eg, Poseidon was given dominion over the control of the sea and Hades the Underworld). The only people that Zeus does not claim control over fate and the fates were, which remains infallible throughout the reign of Zeus, as seen in Homer’s Iliad, where Zeus tells Thetis can not save your child’s life which is destined to die.

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Gigantomaquia

After the fall of the Titans, Zeus’s grandmother, Gaia, is angry at the new order of the gods, either because he felt that the Titans were treated unfairly, or because he felt he was not being honest enough in the Olympic scheme new. Therefore, in revenge, gave birth to a race of giants, hideous creatures, gigantic in size and almost invincible.

Among the hordes of beasts were known as Echidna and Typhon. As soon as they were born, these giants launched an offensive on Mount Olympus, the gods forcing wages to fight again. The Giants tried to reach heaven by piling mountains of Thessaly, Ossa and Pelion.

The gods were against the giants, but would not have won if not for the help of Athena (which some sources say he was born in the midst of the battle of the head of Zeus) and Heracles, who struck the death blow to Alcoyoneus The leader of the Giants. The Gigantomaquia was a popular subject in classical art, often displayed in temples, as the eastern metopa the Parthenon in Athens.

The wife of Zeus

Having established himself king of the gods, Zeus made Hera his sister, his wife and the queen (and very likely, because of this union that Hera is known as the goddess of marriage). Hera is almost always portrayed as the wife of Zeus and can hardly be considered an important mythological figure itself hour.

She appears mainly as an interference in the affairs of Zeus, often demanding vengeance fierce lovers of her husband. A good example of this is when Zeus fell in love with Io, Hera, with full knowledge of this, Zeus forced to hide the truth by transforming the girl into a cow (Promethius Bound by Aeschylus). Hera is also known to have viciously attacked the illegitimate children of Zeus, Heracles most infamous, which is caused to go crazy and kill his own wife and children.

Zeus famous lovers and children

Apart from Hera, Zeus’s lovers were many and varied, sometimes their emotions down to the goddesses, other mortal women. As mentioned above, Zeus raped Io, and seems to have had a great love for the girls, going to have sex with girls as Leto (who raised Helen of Troy), Alcmene (who raised Heracles), Europe (which raised Minos and Sarpedon), and many other lesser-known issues are listed along the mythological tradition.

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These women and children, Hera was able to pursue, however, when Zeus decided slept with a goddess is limiting his ability to punish, and Zeus decided that he slept with a goddess often enough. Among her lovers was divine Leto (mother of Apollo and Artemis), Mnemosyne (which gave birth to the nine Muses), Dione (mother of Aphrodite) and Demeter (Persephone wearing).

It is theorized that these relationships were not punished as they were in some way universal and natural – Guerber suggested that as Zeus was the god of heaven, his affairs with beings as Dione (moisture) is symbolic, not unlike its relationship with Juno (the atmosphere).

Therefore, it appears that Zeus affairs with women were many and almost always result in a child. the love of Zeus, however, not restricted to women, as evidenced by the famous example of Zeus, who was obsessed with a handsome young man named Ganymede, kidnap the child and take him to Olympus to be cup bearer immortal the gods and his consort.

Although this type of behavior can be seen as scandalous in today’s society, the Athenian practice of pederasty (in which a senior citizen male take under his wing a young – efebo to present it in the ways of adult society while conducting a sexual relationship) was common and more or less essential part of puberty for a girl. Thus, in this myth, Zeus can see that taking the role of lecherous rapist as in its relations with mortal women, but a mature, responsible citizen, induction of a naive child in the forms of society the gods.

Zeus and Humanity

The relationship in which Zeus held the man is not clear, as different myths concerning the relationship between Zeus and meetings with varied human evidence. For example, in the famous myth of Promethius and Pandora, Zeus forbids man to take fire from Zeus to the gods do not want to and to prevent human beings move by obtaining the cooking methods on food forging tools and keep warm.

When Promethius disobeyed the decree for stealing a spark of divine fire and giving it to men, Zeus chained the Titan and punished him with an eagle kissed his liver every day. Not satisfied with punishing Promethius, Zeus also had their gods fellow workers in the first woman, Pandora, and gave the world a box was never opened. However, Zeus had given him an intense curiosity, which leads to his being unable to follow instruction and opening the box, releasing all the evils of the world to plague mankind.

While history suggests that Zeus had great animosity towards humanity as a whole, it seems that later in the development of the human race softened the feelings of Zeus, as shown in the story of Philemon and Baucis. According to Guerber version of the myth, Zeus often visited the earth, assuming a disguise, and the visit of men to determine the state of the world firsthand.

One day, Zeus deigned to visit the family poor but pious Philemon and Baucis. When Zeus came to the appearance of a mortal, the couple were eager for the hospitality in accordance with the laws of xenia (a specific code to make caring friend invited a guest, by the way Zeus was the guardian of foreigners and the executor xenia) and chose to kill their last chicken to feed their guests. Seeing Zeus revealed his generosity and gave them both a long life of service to the gods as he wished, and when he died Zeus transformed both oak trees standing in front of his church for centuries.

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Cult of Zeus

Although, as the chief god of the Greek pantheon, Zeus had places of worship in Greece, the largest electoral district and most famous was Panhellenic in Olympia. It was in this place that the ancient Olympic Games originated, and men from all over Greece during the build up to compete against each other for their own honor and his city-state.

These games were very politicized, often in conflict with competing cities for the glory and the prestige of victory. In fact, it is normal to have treasures Panhellenic enclosures in which to save the votive offerings from different cities, the treasures of Olympia is located on the main road through the site, promoting gifts and no city wanted to be shown up by their neighbors for not gifted enough. The temple of Zeus at Olympia was home to the famous statue of Zeus, now lost, was one of the wonders of the ancient world and Pausanias (an ancient Greek travel writer) urges everyone to visit Olympia to experience.

The place of worship of Olympia may have been the largest in existence, but there were other sites throughout Greece, each with slightly different ideas about Zeus, their role and how to worship him. For example, Herodotus tells us that Zeus was often perceived as a god of time, so that worship is often concentrated at the top of the mountains near the sky.

The most important of the mountain of Zeus-sites was, of course, Mount Olympus, although no archaeological evidence of a peak-sanctuary, is likely to have been or some kind of seal on the mountainside, or the Olympic rituals were conducted there. These shrines, however, have dug in other places, for example, on Mount Hymettus, and it seems as if these were related to rain rituals.

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Although rare, Zeus is sometimes referred to in ritual contexts as “signals” or “the harbingers of ‘, suggesting that performed some kind of oracular function. As Zeus was an incarnation of fate, among other things, it seems asked appropriate omens of divine favor rather specific as no amount of prayer will allow Zeus to go against the course of destiny.

This aspect of Zeus is further illustrated by a few oracular sites, at Dodona, in Epirus (reported as the oldest of Oracle in the Greek world, active until the end of the eraas Hellestic well as in Siwa, Egypt. Hornblower states that priests Oracle interpret messages given by God, in the forms of the flight paths of birds in and around the sacred oak trees, divination by lot (cleromancy), by the sound of a gong and / or singing the birds nearby.

As mentioned above, Zeus was traditionally represented as a man fully developed. The cult in Crete, however, seems to have worshiped Zeus as an Adonis like all art that represents it shows a young man with long hair at the edge of manhood.

Many features of Zeus

Zeus, like most of the gods of the Greek pantheon, had many roles and epithets aside from its primary function as a weather god and the king of Olympus. Zeus Panhellenios its title shows its applicability to all of Greece as it literally translates as “Zeus of all the Hellenes.” As mentioned above, Zeus was the lord and executor of Xenia, what is the name of Xenios Zeus, the patron deity of hospitality, friendship and evaluation, punishment of those who violated the laws of xenia. In addition, Zeus watched Agoraios trade relations in the market (agora) and was ready to punish the rogues, thieves and unfair traders.

Another aspect of Zeus was the guardian of oaths and punish those who violate the oath. As a result, oaths were often sworn by almighty Zeus’ and people who violated the terms of his oath were made for
Zeus, man?

Euhemerism is the method of interpretation that seeks to rationalize the fantastic to make it more understandable and hopefully reveal an indication of the truth behind these stories. The founder of this school of thought, Euhemerus, proposed the idea that Zeus was not a god at all, but I was a king, who had been glorified after his death, probably with some kind of extravagant monument, and his fame has led to stories of his life is distorted until it finally became a deity in the minds of later generations. Greek Mythology

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