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Ancient Greece

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The ancient Greeks were a singular people. They deemed that individuals ought to be free once they acted inside the laws of Greece. greece culture

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Ancient Greece

The ancient Greece (mainly the Athenians) were a singular people. They deemed that individuals ought to be free once they acted inside the laws of Greece. This allowed them the opportunity to score well in any direction they chose. Individuality, on the grounds that the Greeks viewed it, was the basis with their society.

The ability to shoot for excellence, no matter what the challenge, was what the Athenians so dearly supported. This shoot for excellence was the method from which they achieved such phenomenal accomplishments. These accomplishments astound us to this day. Additionally, they supported the balance of mind and body.

Although a lot of of which strove being soldiers and athletes, others ventured into philosophy, drama, pottery along with the arts. The two most important concepts that the ancient Greeks followed put together inscribed about the great shrine of Delphi, which read “Nothing in excess” and “Know thyself”. This philosophy greatly affected the Greek civilization.

Athens was the mental center of Greece. It was one of the first city-states of its time, and is still world renowned as the most well-known cities on the globe. It was named after Athena, the goddess of wisdom as well as city’s patron. In 508 BC, Athens became among the initial societies in history to establish democracy. Democracy originated from the Greek words, demos, meaning people, and kratein, meaning to rule. This form of government was used within a meeting place that the Greeks known as the Assembly. Here the individuals of Athens met monthly and reviewed the affairs of state. There have been no decisions made by govt without first asking the Assembly.

Ancient Greece Map

The state of Greece is located in southeastern Europe, on the southern end from the Balkanic peninsula. Greece is encircled about the north by Bulgaria, the FYROM and Albania; to the west from the Ionian Sea; towards the south through the Mediterranean Sea and the east with the Aegean Sea. The state ranges somewhere around in latitude from 35°00’N to 42°00’N and longitude from 19°00’E to 28°30’E. Consequently, it has substantial weather variation, as discussed below.

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The country includes a large landmass;the Peloponnese, a peninsula connected to the mainland by the Isthmus of Corinth; and around 3000 islands, including Crete, Rhodes, Corfu, the Dodecanese and the Cyclades. Greece has 15000 km’s (9300 miles) of coastline. 80% of Greece is mountainous, and also the country is likely one of the most mountainous countries of Europe. Western Greece contains lakes and wetlands. The Pindus Mountains lie from the country’s center, by having an average elevation of 2650 m. They continue because the islands of Kythera, Antikythera and result in the islands of Crete and Rhodes.

Ancient Greece Religion

Historic Ancient Greek faith was polytheistic, significance that there were many gods and actresses. There was a structure of deities, with Zeus, the master of the gods, having a stage of management over all the others. Each deity usually had dominion over a certain element of dynamics, for example, Poseidon determined over the sea and Artemis determined over the Celestial satellite. Other deities determined over an summary idea, for example Aphrodite was the goddess of Really like. Some gods were also particularly associated with a certain town. In particular, Athena was associated with the town of Athens, Apollo with Delphi and Delos, Zeus with Olympia, and Artemis with Ephesus.

Whilst being underworld, the gods were not all highly effective. They had to respect luck, which overrided all. In particular, in mythology, it was Odysseus‘ luck to go back house to Ithaca after the Trojan viruses War, and the gods could only expand his voyage and create it tougher for him, but they could not end him.

The most highly effective gods were known as the Olympians, of which there were 12. They were considered to stay at the top of Support Olympus. The 12 deities were Zeus, god of magic and the sky, Hera, goddess of the loved ones, Poseiden, god of the sea, Demeter, goddess of the Soil and bounty, Ares, god of War, Hermes, god of business, Hephaestus, god of metalcraft, Aphrodite, goddess of affection, Athena, goddess of people, Artemis, goddess of the Celestial satellite, Hestia, goddess of the house, and Apollo, god of lumination. Though there were also many other essential ‘lesser’ dieties, such as Dionysis, the god of wines, and Asclepius, the god of remedies.

Historic Ancient greek photos

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Towards the end of the Established Age and during the Hellenistic Age, a variety of Historic Greek philosophers started to concern the conventional mythologies of their forefathers and provide substitute hypotheses to the source of the galaxy. Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) postulated the everyday living of 1 substantial being usually known in his publication Metaphysics as the “Prime Mover” or the “Unmoved Mover”, though whether he meant to mean that the “Prime Mover” was really a aware being or a power of dynamics is start to decryption.

Ancient Greece Government

Pericles was the best choice of Athens for thirty years. He wasn’t a monarch or despot. The people of Athens elected him year after year. He declared that Athens was a democracy. In Athens, power was “in the hands of several as opposed to the few.” Pericles was correct about stating that Athens would have been a democracy after that. Compared to other ancient governments, Athens was democratic, nevertheless it won’t seem that way today. When he spoke of government from the people, he needs said government through the citizens.

Citizens had more rights in Greeks cities than any of the others. They could do just about anything they desired to do. They could own property, indulge in politics additionally, the law. Most in the men in Greece were citizens, but women, slaves, and foreigners would not be. In Sparta only rich men were citizens. Citizenship was being a family. It trusted birth. Only kids of citizens could be citizens them selves. Children that lived in Athens all of their lives are not citizens if their parents originated other places. Athens seems undemocratic to us because women didn’t have voice in government.

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Slaves were normally captured prisoners of wars. They were sold to individuals and whoever bought them owned them. Some slaves lived good lives with their owners. Others lived in terrible conditions or toiled in mines until death. Unlike slaves in America, slaves in Greece got paid and in case they saved their funds they might be capable to buy their own freedom.

Athens’ growing power startled Sparta. War broke out between Sparta and Athens in 413 B.C. Even though Athens was powerful at sea, Sparta was more powerful on land. For this reason, this war, referred to as the Peloponnesian War, has been called a fight involving the elephant along with the whale.

Both Sparta and Athens attemptedto get support from the Persians in the course of the Pelopenesian War. The Persian were thrilled to see Greeks fighting both and supported Sparta with money for ships. As soon as Sparta shaped a fleet, they defeated the Athenians in 405 B.C. The end of your Pelopennesian War didn’t mean a long duration of peace in Greece. Arguments and quarrels still thorough among for an additional 50 years.

Ancient Greece Clothing

Ancient Greek clothing was sometimes homemade and the same piece of homespun fabric that’s used as a type of garment, or blanket. From Greek vase pictures and sculptures, you can tell the fabrics were bitterly colored and usually decorated with elaborate designs.

Clothing for men and women contains two main garments-a tunic (the peplos or chiton) as well as a cloak (himation). The peplos would be a large rectangle of heavy fabric, usually wool, folded over over the upper edge so your over fold (apoptygma) would reach to your waist. It was placed throughout the body and fastened at the shoulders with a pin or brooch. There were armholes were on each side, and the open side on the garment was either left that way, or pinned or sewn to create a seam.

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The chiton was made of a much lighter material, normally linen. It was obviously a very long and incredibly wide rectangle of cloth sewn up at the sides, pinned or sewn with the shoulders, and frequently girded round the waist. Usually the chiton was wide enough to allow for sleeves which are fastened along the upper arms with pins or buttons. The peplos and chiton were floor-length garments that were usually enough time to be stopped the belt, making a pouch known as a kolpos. Under either garment, a girl may need worn a soft band, known as a strophion, throughout the mid-section on the body.

Men in ancient Greece typically wore a chiton just like the one worn by women, but knee-length or shorter. An exomis (a quick chiton fastened on the left shoulder) was worn for exercise, horse riding, or hard labor. The himation (cloak) worn by men and women was in essence a rectangular piece of heavy fabric, either woolen or linen. It was draped diagonally over one shoulder or symmetrically over both shoulders, like a stole.

Women sometimes wore an epiblema (shawl) on the peplos or chiton. Teenagers often wore a chlamys (short cloak) for riding. Greek men often wore a broad-brimmed hat (petasos), and also on rare occasions, Greek women put on a flat-brimmed one which has a high peaked crown.

Ancient Greece Olympics

The first noted Olympic Games took location in Olympia, in the wonderful location of Elias, in 776 BC. There is proof however, to aid the state that the games had been developing a lot previously than 776 BC, but these were not as sorted or used every four decades, as the 776 BC games had been.

The name of each Olympiad was known as after the competition of the arena competition, which was the most popular of all the activities. The first Olympiad was known as Koroibos of Elias, as he was the success of the arena competition in 776 BC.

Olympia was, and still is, a wonderful location, and many temples or wats and sculptures were designed. These were all designed in commitment to Zeus, the Dad of all Gods. Olympia also became a hub for faith in the Mycenaean interval.

The temples or wats that were designed in Olympia were all for a purpose, and were of significance. The brow of Zeus, had as its centerpiece, a precious metal and cream color sculpture of Zeus. Status at about 12 measures in size, the sculpture was very amazing.

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The sculpture, created by Phidias, was seen as one of the seven like a charm of the historic community. Also near to the brow of Zeus, was the outrageous olive shrub from which the wreath caps were created and offered to the victors of the activities. Star has it, this shrub was placed by Herakles (Hercules).

In the starting, the games contains only one occurrence, the managing of the arena, and survived for just one day. However, towards the 5th millennium, the games were prolonged to five times, and more activities were also included.

From 729 BC the contributors of the games had to contend in the unclothed to avoid any being disloyal, and also in the attention of protection. Formerly, only Greeks created men, who had not dedicated homicide or heresy, where granted to take aspect in the games. However, later on, Romans were also authorized to take aspect. Females were unacceptable to contend, and were even suspended from coming into the arena to enjoy the games.

Ancient Greek Food

The ancient Greeks had rather weird and uncommon ideas about their meals. All the meals in ancient Greece revolved around their religious beliefs and philosophical theories. The Greeks never consumed the meat of a domesticated animal, as they considered it to be barbaric. The only meat that was consumed was that of the animals that were either first scarified to god, or were hunted in the wild. The Greeks also never consumed milk in its raw form. The milk was first processed into normal cheese or cottage cheese and then consumed. In the ancient Greek food facts, it is often seen that the Greeks never consumed anything that was a part of the barbarian, nomads and the non-Greek diets.

The eating pattern of the ancient Greeks was also a bit different. The first meal of the day was the breakfast, that was eaten early in the morning. Large amounts of bread, vegetables and soups were used in this meal. The second meal was an early lunch, where again bread and vegetables were occasionally accompanied by meat or fish. Cheese and olives were used in generous quantities in these meals. The supper that was relished in the evening itself, was the main meal of the day. A majority of times, the supper consisted of many different fruits, vegetables, wines and bread. The following are some of the prominent ancient Greek food ingredients.

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Although greatly affected by other historic countries over the decades, historic Ancient greek meals, and basic baking methods have changed very little over time. Ancient Greeks treated refreshments as a kind of art form, and the cooks of the day were very much well known.

Typical historic Ancient greek baking requirements are bread, olives, olive oil, figs, local natural cheese, created from the take advantage of of local domestic farm animals, such as goat’s which are in large quantity and easily kept on the hilly and difficult environment.

Ancient Ancient greek Foods LemonsSheep and hogs are kept by local farm owners too. Chicken is left to walk in peace and the natural egg are fresh and delightful.

Local bottles of wine created from the local fruit which are produced, including ouzo, an aniseed type heart which gardening years have improved the formulas over decades, and vegetables which have been produced from the ground of local areas and almost all are naturally produced without the use of bug sprays.

Included in these historic Ancient greek meals requirements are local within a and delightful fish, caught in the ocean surrounding landmass Portugal and the individual islands.

Other important threads about Greece:

Athena Goddess

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Athena Goddess

Athena was the girl child of Zeus and Metis. But there is a controversy, Zeus examined on Metis and found out that if he had a son by her this son could be mightier than him (you recognize, the same way he was greater than his daddy and his daddy was higher than his grandpa). So he tricked Metis and finished up swallowing her when she turned into a fly and figured she wasn’t any longer a threat. However, Metis was pregnant with Athena so when Athena was born, this became a good problem. Soon Zeus was affected with killer head aches and he ran to Hephaestus (Smith God) and begged him to open his head. Hephaestus did because he was told, and out popped Athena, adult and ready for battle!

Other versions peg her father as Pallas (who later tried to ravage her and she killed him without hesitation and took his name and skin). Some say her daddy was Itonus, a King of Iton. Some say her biological father was Poseidon, but that she begged to be adopted by Zeus. Regardless of what the story is, she never incorporates a real mother.

Athena’s birth “is a needy theological expedient to rid her of matriarchal conditions” says J. E. Harrison. She was the Goddess of Wisdom, and the daughter of the Titaness who basically personified it. With her born only from Zeus, it gave males authority and control of something had previously only been a female realm. Zeus swallowed Metis, and so surely could assimilate her crafty wisdom. Athena didn’t have any loyalty to a mother figure, which surely played an essential role in her self-description as misogynist.


Athena was, as I said earlier, the Goddess of more things than I can shake a stick at. But they also can be pretty easily summarized into three things. She was the Goddess of Wisdom, Goddess of Military Victory (war with good tactics and winning strategies, not just fighting, like Ares), and Goddess of Crafts. I need to elaborate a bit more on that last one, just so you can understand her coolness. Athena invented the flute, the trumpet, the earthenware pot, the plough, the rake, the ox-yoke, the horse-bridle, the chariot, also, the ship. Now that’s only the “guy” stuff. She seemed to be the earliest teacher with the science of numbers, and all women’s arts: weaving, cooking, and spinning. If you are looking through paintings and you think you might need found something that is Athena, here is a few of her iconography: the aegis (shield/fringed cloak, sometimes with the head of Medusa on it), a shield (again, sometimes while using head of Medusa), bronze armor, a helmet (this is very common), and a spear (also very common). Athena have also been one of the three Virgin Goddesses on Olympus, something you might like to learn more about.

The Naming of Athens

I am telling this story here (briefly) because it’s imperative that you Athena (I think), but there’s a far greater version of this, for your studying pleasure, in the Myth Pages. So! Wayyyyyy in older days town of Athens belonged to Poseidon. He’d claimed it by arriving, striking a rock along with his trident and establishing a spring. Though the spring only gushed brine, and so it wasn’t very helpful, even if it was reasonably pretty. Several years later, in the course of the reign of Cecrops (a half-snake dude who had previously been the king there), Athena arrived and planted an olive tree, thus proclaiming the land for herself. Poseidon was fully pissed off, and challenged Athena to mortal combat (he would have got his ass kicked) and Athena was about to just accept with the exception that Zeus stepped in and stopped them (he probably didn’t want Poseidon killed). Instead they went before the Gods with Cecrops presenting evidence. The Gods voted. All the males voted for Poseidon and all sorts of the Goddesses voted for Athena, excepting Zeus – who refused to give his opinion. Therefore, Athena won the decision by one vote.
Poseidon was pissed, and – like the stupid boy he was – threw a temper tantrum and flooded a different one of Athena’s cities (called Athenae on a Thriasian Plain). So Athena moved to Athens, took residence there and named that city after herself too. But, to help Poseidon’s ego, the women of Athens were missing out on their vote, and men were no longer to sling their mothers’ names.

Love and youngsters and Virginity

Athena was liked by most everyone, and was a very loving person herself. But she loved everyone in the filial sense (like a sister), and was fully bored with sex. There are heaps of Gods that would have given their eyes to marry her, but she was completely disgusted by the idea. Once, throughout the Trojan War, Athena needed to ask Hephaestus to create her a set of armor and weapons. She agreed to pay him, but Hephaestus insisted that his only payment can be love. She completely missed the lovemaking innuendo and agreed. When she came to Hephaestus’ smithy to develop her stuff, he came at her and tried to ravage her. Obviously that didn’t happen. Don’t think to badly of Hephaestus though, it truly wasn’t all his fault. Poseidon had played a joke on him and told him that Athena was on her method to the smithy hoping to make violent love to him. Athena totally ran away from the unfortunate Hephaestus, but she didn’t move quite fast enough and he ejaculated on her leg. Athena was completely grossed out, and wiped it off with a bit of wool that she then dropped on the planet. That might be Gaia, and she was fertilized by the semen on the wool. Gaia was revolted at the very idea of it, and so she refused to bring a youngster up. Athena was fine with this and thought we would bring the kid, who she named Erichthonius (“Earth-born”), up herself. There’s more to this story (involving love, suicide, and folks getting turned into stone), but if you want to know it, you better sample it out in the Myth Pages. Sadly it is not there yet, so you’re just gonna ought to wait.

Goodness and Temper

In general, Athena was a very nice goddess. She was very modest, like Artemis, but way more generous. Athena, like Artemis, was surprised at an enraptured onlooker while bathing, but she didn’t kill him or transform him or rip him to shreds or anything. She laid her hands over his eyes and blinded him, but gave him inward sight and the chance to understand the birds’ signs to tell the long run. Due to this fact, Teiresias (that has been his name) was highly respected and revered there after. So wasn’t bad at all.

Athena was, as I said, generally cool. But every once in a while she got all pissy (as gods tend to get) and lashed out. Once, was a rather minor incident when she invented this double stemmed flute. She really was anxious about it, and went around playing it everywhere. That is definitely, until someone happened to mention that she looked absolutely ridiculous along with her cheeks puffed out prefer that to experience. She was furious and threw the flute to the ground where it was found by Marsyas, but that’s another story. Las Hilanderas by Diego Velasquez The one time Athena really lost it for something petty what food was in the story of Arachne, and that story isn’t even really Greek. Arachne was this Lydian princess who was a fabulous weaver. She was so good that individuals said she was a lot better than Athena. Athena heard and was all like, “Excuuuuuuse me? Please girl, I was weaving before humans existed,” and challenged Arachne to a weave-off. My mom and dad made beautiful tapestries, and both were completely flawless, except Arachne’s made fun of the Gods. Athena was bitter and very pissed and ripped Arachne’s work to shreds in a cold, vengeful rage. Arachne totally didn’t mean to upset her heroine and hung herself, but Athena remembered herself, and saved the girl by turning her into a spider and giving her the ability to weave forever. In a variation on the same theme, Servius reports that Athena loved this Attic chick, but the girl (Myrmex) went out and betrayed Athena’s trust by claiming to have invented the plow herself, when it was really Athena. See, if they were both mortal, there’d have already been all this drama, someone would’ve gone home crying … but Athena just turned the girl into an ant for being so presumptuous and that was the end of that.

Athena is usually referred to in mythology, but when you don’t know her names, sometimes these references can be hard to catch. She is often called Pallas, or Pallas Athene. This name comes from a childhood friend she had, a nymph, who she accidentally killed when they were having a mock battle. Athena was distraught and carried her friend’s name with her forever more. The name, Pallas, means Maiden. And as Athena is often referred to in this form – which can refer to her Virginity, her Youthful Strength, or her Independence – you should definitely know what it means.Often you will find references to her as “gray-eyed”, a reference which seems linked only to Athena and may have something to do with her wisdom. There is one weird reference by Pausanias about Athena having blue eyes. That comes from a Libyan story that Athena was the daughter of Poseidon and Lake Tritonis, and due to that has blue eyes like her father. But this story is not generally accepted, and you aren’t going to find a blue-eyed Athena anywhere except on one statue next to a specific Temple of Hephaestus, so don’t worry about it. Sometimes she is called “bright-eyed” but that is common to all Gods.In Cylarabes there is an Athena called Pania. This name, I am guessing, comes from her discovery of the flute. In Athens they called her Athena Ergane (Worker) and were very devoted to her because of her crafts. The story of her patronship of Athens is really cool, and I told it above. She was called Athena Aethyia (Gannet, a type of bird), and I don’t know why yet, but there was a Rock dedicated to this where the hero Pandion died.

Tritogeneia was another name of Athena’s. It could have originate from three different sources. Geneia means “born” in Greek, so it could be a mention of the idea that Athena came to be from the Lake Tritonis. It also could have been from tritô, the Aeolian word for “head”, therefore “head-born” – which may create a wide range of sense. The other idea is that the trito was from the root meaning “three” and that she was the 3rd child (she was the 3rd Olympian daughter of Zeus after Artemis and Apollo).

Okay – there are plenty of epithets of Athena that I don’t have room or patience to discuss these at length, but here is a list I copied directly out of Robert E. Bell’s Women of Classical Mythology: A Biographical Dictionary (BUY IT!): Acraea, Aethyia, Ageleia, Agoraea, Alalcomeneis, Alcimache, Alcis, Alea, Amublia, Anemotis, Apaturia, Areia, Asia, Assesia, Axiopoenos, Boulaia, Budeia, Chalinitis, Chryse, Cleidouchos, Colocasia, Coryphasia, Cydonia, Ergane, Glaucopis, Hellotia, Hippia, Hippolatis, Hygieia, Iasonia, Itonia, Laosos, Laphria, Larissaea, Lindia, Longatos, Magarsia, Munychia, Narcaea, Nedusia, Nice, Onca, Ophthalmitis, Optiletis, Oxydercis, Paeonia, Pallas, Pallenis, Panachaea, Pareia, Parthenos, Phrygia, Polias, Poliuchos, Polyboulos, Promachorma, Pronaea, Pylaitis, Saitis, Salpinx, Sciras, Soteira, Telchinia, Triton, Xenia, Zosteria.

Of the many derivations proposed for the name of Athena (or Athene) none is really satisfactory.The Sanskrit vadh (to strike) and adh (hill) have been suggested, as well as the Greek for ‘flower’ and ‘nurse’! All in the dative form, which may be translated as: To the lady of Athena (Atana), to Enyalios, to Paeaon, to Poseidon. By doing this the Minoan-Mycenean name of the Goddess Athena as been preserved for us. The name of the Goddess may be understood straight from the Greek as the one “who comes”. The poetic epithet Pallas frequently joined towards the name Athena arrives either from the Greek ‘to strike’ or more probably in the Greek ‘girl’.

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The Cult of Athena

Though she was honored throughout Greece Athena was the object of an especial cult in Athens. On the Acropolis she’s got, besides the Parthenon, two other temples: the temple of Athena Nike and the Erechtheum.

The chief festivals from the cult of Athena were: the Arrephoria, throughout which two little girls of noble family, from seven to eleven years old, descended from the Acropolis to deposit in an underground chamber near the sanctuary of Aphrodite mysterious objects which they carried in a basket; the Scirophoria, when priests and priestesses walked in solemn procession under a vast parasol (sciron); and finally the Panathenaea which dated in the days of Theseus and contains a solemn procession to the Acropolis by which was carried to the Goddess a peplos made by probably the most skilled workmen in Athens. Taking part weren’t only priests and magistrates but also girls carrying baskets, old men bearing olive branches and teenagers on horseback. During the Panathenaea were held races, gymnastic games, regattas and contests of music, singing and dancing.

Athena’s Chastity

On all the times when Athena came to the aid of heroes it was because they were worthy of her esteem, not because of any amorous attraction. Athena was a striking exception to Olympian society because of her absolute chastity. In spite of calumny and insinuations about supposed relations with Helios, Hephaestus as well as Hercules, her heart remained insensitive towards the pangs of love and she or he defended her virginity fiercely. Woe to anybody who wounded her modesty!

Eventually when she was bathing with the nymph Chariclo, Teiresias by chance beheld her. He was responsible for a maximum of unconscious indiscretion. Athena, nevertheless, punished him by depriving him of his sight. In spite of her companion’s plea for pity she refused to revoke her decision, but to soften the harshness of the punishment she conferred upon the unhappy Teiresias the gift of foretelling the near future.

Hephaestus became enamored of Athena. One day once the Goddess came to see him about creating a suit of armor for her he attempted to violate her. Athena fled, pursued by the limping God, he caught up with her, but she defended herself so effectively that Hephaestus was not able to accomplish his criminal design and, instead, scattered his seed on the earth, which shortly afterwards gave birth to a son, Erichthonius. The child was discovered by Athena, who brought him up unknown to the other Gods. She enclosed the infant in a basket which she confided to the daughters of Cecrops, forbidding them to open it up. One of the sisters, Pandrosus, obeyed; the other 2, Herse and Aglauros, could not control their curiosity. But the moment they opened the basket they fled in terror; for around the infant a serpent was coiled. They were stricken with madness by Athena, and flung themselves off the top of the Acropolis. Erichthonius grew to maturity and became king of Athens, where he established the solemn cult of Athena.

The catastrophic fire which destroyed definitively the palace of Cnossus arround 1375 BCE has burned also seriously the tables of clay from the archives, in such a way that now, after being deciphered, speak to us in the quality of documents of this last period. They are only lists which hold, essentially, names and numbers. Between the names, immediately calls our attention a series of Greek Gods who became later current. Daughter of Zeus, and just by him, the Goddess Athena wasn’t generated by any woman. She leaped from the head of Zeus, already adult, dressed together with her armor.But the mother isn’t completely missing from the miraculous birth of Pallas Athena. According to Hesiod’s account of the weddings of Zeus, the King of the Gods chose Metis as his first wife. She was of all beings “the most knowing” (as the word metis is interpreted), or “of many counsels” as converted in the sense of the Homeric epithet polymetis.

As she was about to give birth to the Goddess Athena, Zeus deceived his pregnant wife with cunning words and assimilated her into his own body. Mother Earth and Father Sky had advised him to do this so as to prevent any of his descendants from robbing him of his kingly rank. For it was destined that the most brilliant children were to be born to the Goddess Metis: first, the daughter Athena, and later a son, the future King of Gods and men. In the most ancient account, the Iliad, Athena may be the Goddess of ferocious and implacable fight, but, wherever she will be found, she only is a warrior to guard the State and the native land against the enemies originating from outside.

She is, above all, the Goddess from the City, the protectress of civilized life, of artesian activities, and of agriculture. She also invented the horse-bit, which, for the first time, tamed horses, allowing men to use them.She is the favorite daughter of Zeus; which explains why he let her use his insignia: the terrible shield, the aegis and his devastating weapon, the ray.The most famous expression to describe her is “the bright eyed”. She’s the first of the three virgin Goddesses, also called Maiden, Parthenos, and out of this name was taken the name to the most important Temple dedicated to her, the Parthenon.In poetry she is the incarnation of Wisdom, Reason and Purity.Athens is her city; the olive tree, developed by her, is her tree; the owl, is the birth consecrated to her.