Cappadocia which is unique and is a miraculous nature wonder is the common name for the region of the provinces of Aksaray, Nevsehir, Nigde, Kayseri and Kirsehir in central Anatolia region.
In the period of Myos higher in the Cappadocia region because of volcanic eruptions occurred in Erciyes, Hasandag Gulludag and was in the region formed a vast plateau of volcanic tuff and in collaboration with the erosion of the river and the wind Kizilirmak over ten years thausands appeared the chimney rocks, which is a natural wonder. In the early Bronze Age of Cappadocia, which was the area the population of the Assyrian civilization later has hosted the Hittite, fridge, Pers, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman civilizations. The early Christians have fled persecution in the Roman Empire in the second century BC came to Cappadocia in Antakya and Kayseri and they settled here. The early Christians are the underground cities of Cappadocia has been hidden in these underground cities which gates were made so that they could not easily observable, and they fled persecution by the Roman soldiers.
Because of this they live in underground cities for long without being able to get what they have developed these underground cities by making provisions rooms, ventilation chimneys, places of production of wine, churches, abbeys , water wells, toilets and meeting rooms.
In prehistoric times, the first settlements began and humans have built underground cities in the tuff as a result of protection against wild animals and lived long in these underground cities. There are underground cities for many in the Cappadocia region of Turkey, but the biggest is the city of Derinkuyu underground.
In such cities as parts connected to each other some of the rooms were connected to each other, only with narrow tunnels and allow the passage of one person. To access the gates of these tunnels there were huge stone rollers used for closing the tunnels for safety reasons.
The first people in the region of Cappadocia was Luvie Hattie and the Hittites. In the years 3000-2000 BC, the Assyrians have established trade colonies in this region. Cappaddocian tables with cuneiform in Assyrian language founded in Kanes illuminates the social and political life of the time and were at the same time, trade and economic agreements are the firs written tablets of Anatolia. According to these documents from the period in Anatolia were founded small local kingdoms, not by a central authority. Usually, their hands in a small area and live in peace. The region to form the core of the Hittite Empire later passed under the dominion of Phrygia and Persian civilization Katpatuka Persons called this region and its center was Mazak.
When Datames Satrab (Starab: District Administrator in a small Persons) Cappadocia has bear arms against the biggest king of Pers, the other Anatolian Satrabs supported him, but the rebellion broke. In 33 BC, Alexander the Great had captured an important part of Cappadocia. Cappadocia in 188 BC, which is recorded in the Roman Empire was captured in 100 BC, king of Pontus, Mithridates, but Mithridatesd 63 BC, Pompey was defeated and took over Cappadocia under the domination of Rome. During the period of Tiberius the Roman Cappadocia gainded space of the city.
Cappadocia was one of the most important in times of Christianity. The early Christians trying to escape from Roman soldiers, who wanted to avoid the spread of Christianity in the region have settled in Cappadocia, which was so suitable for hiding and then were able to continue to spread their nature and religion. San Basileious by the Kaiser, and St. Gregory of Nyssa had settled from Cappadocia. In 647 AC together with occupation of Kayseri Cappadocia Muaviye met with Arab attacks. Cappadocia which went under the domination of the Seljuks in 1072 has been added to the lands by the Ottoman Empire in 1399 the Ottoman sultan Yildirim Beyazit.
Forest birds Reed
Kayseri Erciyes Dagi and south of, or Sultansazligi Sultan Marshes is an extensive wetland area, which surrounds the Plain Develi. The road to Kayseri is a city Develi offers a very scenic drive following the Karasu River Tekir Yaylasi a popular ski resort located on the eastern side of Erciyes Dagi. The road descends the southern slopes of the mountain, where the Sultan Marshes ecosystem size, scattered throughout the majestic, snow-covered mountain. And ‘the closest, and the reeds swaying breeze and iridescent blue water sparkles in the sun and the masses of pink flamingos in the Yay Golu fury.
This wetland consists of two freshwater lakes covered with reeds, and Col Golu Egrigol, north and south of Develi plain Yay Golu a salt lake between them and the surrounding wetlands. It is the largest wetland ecosystem in Turkey and is fed by many springs and streams of the surrounding mountains. Its location at the time of three continents makes it an important breeding ground for birds and over 250 species found here. While the Sultan marshes are of particular interest to ornithologists, the flamingos Yay Golu is just as impressive for most travelers like Lake Nakuru in Kenya and Lake Manyara in Tanzania.
There is a watchtower on the Ovaciftlik just east of Kayseri-Nigde highway along the road connecting to Yahyali, a village where women weave carpets distinctive local patterns of world renown. Villages near Sindelhuyuk Develi Ovaciftlik and is convenient to take action to see the flamingos Yay Golu, but boat trips on various lakes are generally negotiated by one of the villages that surround the area.
Although underground ‘city’ the term of Cappadocia, was probably temporary or permanent refuge in the hidden city. Constant darkness is hardly conducive to life, and some passages are a little ‘more than crawl spaces, would be unsustainable in the long-term situations. No there is no certainty a number of underground communities exist, or even that they were built.
The two largest communities that have been excavated, are located on Kaymakli and Derinkuyu, 20 and 30 km. south of Nevsehir Nevsehir-Nigde road. It is believed that the Hittites may have excavated the lower levels of the rock where they were attacked by the Phrygians around 1200 BC. But some archaeologists believe that the oldest caves, those hewn with stone rather than metal tools, which are much older. These rooms were later extended to a complete cave complex by Christians escaping the Arab invasions of the 7th and 8th century.
Discrete inputs give way to elaborate systems of underground air with trees, tree waste, wells, chimneys and connection time. The higher levels were used for housing, while lower levels were used for storage, wine making, flour milling and worship in the chapels simple. Everywhere the walls were blackened by the use of torches. There is a tunnel connecting Kaymakli and Derinkuyu that allowed three people to go through the same time, but it is not available to the public through the tunnel collapsed.
0nly 10 kms. This is another Kaymakli Cavetown to Mazikoy that may be related to Derinkuyu but this remains to be demonstrated. This community was built in the walls of a cliff. Unlike Kaymakli and Derinkuyu, there are no stairs or classes of moving from one level to another. In contrast, the levels are well defined with connecting tunnels through which the people went up or abandoned by their own footholds carved into the walls of trees. Mazikoy is often ignored because it is a small community, its location is far from the main road and some flexibility is needed to fully appreciate its capabilities.
Cut Rock Churches and Monasteries
Many of the settlements in Cappadocia had been established primarily monastic communities. Bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in the 4 th century, St. Basil the Great wrote the rules of monastic life, which are still followed by monks and nuns of the Greek Orthodox Church. She claimed the life of the community, prayer and physical labor as a solitary asceticism that was popular at that time and it was his leadership that the first churches built in the valley of Goreme. This small communities, each with their churches, formed a large monastic complex which is now the Open Air Museum. Hundreds of churches are reported to have been built in this valley, but not in the churches of St. Basil of minutes. Goreme, Tokali Kilise or “Buckle Church” is easily the most beautiful churches, with arches and beautiful frescoes.
The monastery is the most impressive monastery in Cappadocia is Eskigumus Nigde Nigde-Kayseri road. It is the southernmost of the monasteries of Cappadocia and is close to the road that the Arabs invaders, which is crossed by the southern mountains of Tarsus in Kayseri looting in the seventh century. This road follows the river through a hastily called Tarsus Bogazi Gulek unclean. He was known in the ancient world as Gates, Cilicia, and was used by Alexander the Great in his campaign against the Persians East. The entrance to the monastery of any Eskigumus was designed to protect the monastery from passers attackers. It was so successful that the monastery was not discovered until 1963, having escaped the vandalism, which most churches and monasteries of Cappadocia were submitted. The large courtyard surrounded by high walls of the monastery boasts rooms and shops. The main church is spacious and airy, and well-preserved murals considered the best example of Byzantine art in all of Cappadocia.
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Over millions of years, the mighty volcanoes of the Central Anatolian Plateau erupted and threw its contents across the land that became the cradle of civilization. Blessed with a temperate climate and fertile soil, one of the world’s first known communities was founded 10,000 years ago Catalhoyuk along the banks of the Casambasuyu near Konya. painting of the first nature of humanity is here and it portrays the most recent eruption of Hasan Dagi almost 9000 years. Today, its snow-capped peaks dominate the Konya plain, awash in golden hues in the vast fields of wheat blend subtly with ocher-colored earth and the monochromatic palette is interrupted only where rivers flow and the tall poplars flaunt of its vegetation.
Another great volcano rises in the distance to the east of Hasan Dagi. Once called Mt. Argeus, awesome presence of Erciyes Dagi inspired legends as the “Abode of the Gods” and the Persians built a Zoroastrian fire temple nearby. These two ancient volcanoes mark the western and eastern boundaries of a region known for its curious volcanic landscape that has been relentlessly carved by nature and by people who have lived here. “Fairy chimneys, cones and strange rock formations have been sculpted by wind and rain while subterranean towns were excavated by the search of a shelter population of the conquerors and would-be conquerors who crossed the open steppes of the plateau central Anatolia. Ancient Anatolian tribes, Assyrians, Hittites, Phrygians, Turkic tribes from Central Asia, Mongols, Persians, Syrians, Arabs, Kurds, Armenians, Slavs, Greeks, Romans and Western Europeans have moved to leave behind some of their traditions and Cappadocian as their genes and their representation as exotic as surreal environment.
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Although the Hellenistic kingdom of Cappadocia once covered a much larger area, the name now refers to the region east of Konya is defined in Aksaray to the west, Kayseri in the east, Nigde in the south and north of Kırşehir. Guides and coaches focus on the underground cities and Kaymakli Derinkuyu and cliffs and Byzantine churches found in the area bounded by the trilateral Avanos, Nevsehir and Urgup. For those who take time to explore the paths less traveled, Cappadocia is a land lost. Far from Goreme, Zelve and major attractions, is partially excavated Hittite centers cavetowns and hundreds of churches, which are rarely, gorges to explore and some of the most vivid, pastoral scenes stick in all over Turkey.
Aksaray is located on Melendiz Çayı (Melendiz River) along the ancient trade route linking Persia to the Aegean. It was once the Garsaura city, later renamed Archelais but little of its ancient past survives. During the Seljuks (1071-1300), was transformed into an exemplary city Muslim Aksaray, where a hospital and schools were built. One of the first two schools of Islamic theology, was Ibrahim Kadiroglu Medrese built here in the 12th century. The second was built in Konya, Turkey one of the oldest inhabited cities and the capital of the Sultanate of Roum. These schools, and later drew some of the greatest Islamic scholars, philosophers and theologians of the age, including Jelaluddin who escaped the Mongol invasion of Afghanistan. He is best known as Mevlana Rumi Jelaluddin, a famous master mystic and saint favorite Konya.
Above the verdant valley has remained relatively untouched by the oil strikers, who have swept the country. Protected natural barrier, a massive Hasan Dagi, to the south, the valley is located away from main travel routes, which are further proof of the main streets of Aksaray and Kayseri, and Kırşehir and Nigde. He then acted as a physical and mental oasis for people who have lived here. Hittites, Phrygians found refuge from invaders, while the early Christian monks to impose its isolation in a remote corner of the kingdom during the second century Roman persecutions, and subsequently protected by the Arab conquests of the 7th and eighth centuries.
The valley became an important center of monasticism that lasted for ages 4-14. It is estimated that 150 different churches and monasteries in the canyon between the villages and Ihlara Selime. 14 km walk through the peaceful gorge is a delight. Mottled light poplars and olive trees, and the continuous noise of water provide relief from the relentless sun and the monotony of wheat fields, which constitute the landscape of Cappadocia. Near the village, the river remains a center of village life: women washing clothes in the noise and laughter, children splashing, shepherds and their animals to drink.
The main churches are marked, although a few have been closed to the public. The most popular churches are those of the canyon area between the villages and Ihlara Belisirma. However, Selime Yaprakhisar and more interesting architecture and stone houses that range in rock caves. The village is named Selime sultan, whose tomb is tapered at the river bank and many facades are carved into the cliffs of Yaprakhisar. For the adventurous, throughout Ihlara Valley is a wonderful place for exploration. Children know the hidden entrances and offer some of the most amazing ‘tours’ are found in Cappadocia, and sharing the special field, running along the tracks through the rocks into a maze of caves and tunnels that are open to unexpected hiding places.
Ihlara only nine miles, the town sits Helvadere foot of Hasan Dagi. Peaks over 10,000 feet and the north side is placed with ribbons of snow where the gullies have recorded the powerful volcano. The mountain called for that abounds in secrets and legends. Has witnessed the comings and goings of Central Anatolia since the dawn of civilization. Roman ruins, Byzantine churches and Seljuk tombs scattered along its northern slopes and mountain villagers tell stories intriguing legends of the serpent. In his book, Caves of God: Cappadocia and its churches, Spiro Kostof interprets the symbolism of the paintings in the Kilise Jilani (Snake Church), located on the bridge from the Manor Pavilion Ihlara throat. For a painting, suggests that a woman is being punished for not breastfeed her children because two snakes attached to her nipples. It seems likely that the true meaning can be hidden inside the snake legends of these inhabitants of the mountains. Although long to discover the secrets of Hasan Dagi, just enough time to walk half an hour late Helvadere to visit the ruins of Viransehir (Destroyed City). There was a large monastic complex here and the remains of a Byzantine fortress and two churches can be seen.
A walk along the road north of Aksaray, Nevsehir is to visit the true heart of Turkey. Many farming communities are found along streams and rivers that flow into the pillar Kizilirmak, the longest river in Turkey, which is over 800 miles long. Agriculture in Turkey is generally highly mechanized, but here, harvesters still maintain the false and plants are often hand-watered with buckets plunged into nearby irrigation canals. When the sun reaches its zenith, the workers gathered under the shade trees for lunch and a rest in a scene reminiscent of 16th century painting “The Harvesters.” In this way, the life of centuries-old remains, seemingly indifferent to the invasion of mass tourism.
There cavetowns and rock formations scattered within this area. Tatlarinkoy complex has a large semi-troglodyte caves but only available to the public. The small Byzantine church has been vandalized and its original colors remain rich and vibrant. A typical cave house with several rooms you can explore and complete with “phone” (a special channel to talk to another level), toilet, kitchen, shelves and a solid rock in the shape of rolling wheel that serves as the door. Above the door is a compartment from which to attack an intruder who may have broken the barrier. The main features of this cave dwelling duplicated throughout Cappadocia. In Tatlarinkoy tickets, caves dotted around the cliffs carved by the river Acisu. Some caves are used by farmers for food storage and animal shelters, but many seem to have been abandoned completely.
Kayseri was already an ancient Hittite Mazaca call when it was renamed Caesarea in Cappadocia by the Romans in the 1st century AD. Nearby, Kultepe archaeological excavations have revealed that the area was first occupied about 4000 a. C. and known as Kanesh in ancient times. Operation was a powerful commercial and mining center around 2000 BC and 4000 years the Assyrians silver mines can still be seen there. Most Kultepe artifacts found in the Kayseri Archaeological Museum.
During the Byzantine period, Caesarea Mazaca maintained its importance as a city of commerce and trade as well as a major metallurgical center that specialized in the manufacture of heavy cavalry armor. Their schools were classified with Athens, Alexandria and Constantinople. Must have been a rich city, because there have been historical references to their beautiful homes, fine cuisine and many hospices were built by St. Basil the Great, another Cappadocian Father and friend of St. Gregory Nazianzen. Much of his Byzantine years has been lost because the city was leveled in the 11th century when it was captured by the Seljuk Turks and was abandoned for fifty years. Ruins of a quarter-century monastery and the fortress of Justinian’s sixth century has been restored by the Seljuks and Ottomans, still remain. Surprisingly, one of the culinary traditions have survived Mazaca Caesarea. They developed a type of cured meat called Paston was presented to Hungary and Romania as pastirma conquest by the Turks. It was then adapted and brought to New York as pastrami on Jewish immigrants.
Under the Seljuks, Kayseri became prominent again the second most important city of the kingdom, many architecturally significant structures. theological schools, medical schools and hospitals were built here. As the main center of learning and commerce Kayseri attracted intellectual elites, merchants, craftsmen and skilled artisans. Today is the university city of Kayseri, a large country and is located in a lively trade in carpets and kilims.
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Birds of the Reed Forests
And south of Kayseri Erciyes Dagi, or Sultansazligi Sultan Marshes is a large wetland area that is surrounded by Plain Devel. The road and the city of Kayseri devel offers a very scenic drive along the river Karasu Tekir Yaylasi a popular ski resort located on the eastern slope of Erciyes Dagi. The road down the southern slopes, where the Sultan Marshes ecosystem size spread throughout the majestic, snow-capped mountains. A closer look, and the reeds swaying in the breeze, the iridescent blue waters glisten in the sun and the masses of pink flamingos on a rampage in Yay Golu.
This wetland consists of two freshwater lakes covered with reeds and Egrigol Col Golu, north and south of the normal Develi Yay Golu, a salt lake, including and surrounding wetlands. It is the largest wetland ecosystem in Turkey and is fed by numerous springs and streams in the surrounding mountains. Its location at the crossroads of three continents, makes it an important breeding ground for birds and 250 species are found here. While the Sultan Marshes are of particular interest to ornithologists, the pink flamingos are so impressive Yay Golu to most travelers as those at Lake Nakuru in Kenya and Lake Manyara in Tanzania.
Ovaciftlik There is a lookout just east of the Kayseri-Nigde highway along the road connecting Yahyali, a village where women weave carpets world-renowned hallmark stamped. The people of Sindelhuyuk near Ovaciftlik Develi and are suitable for making arrangements for the flamenco Yay Golu but boating on the lakes of various usually can negotiate any of the villages surrounding the area.
Although referred to as “cities”, the underground communities of Cappadocia probably served as temporary shelters rather than permanent and hidden cities. Constant darkness is hardly conducive to life and some of the passages are not more than crawl spaces would have been intolerable in long-term situations. No one knows with certainty the number of underground communities that exist or for which they were built.
The two largest communities that have been discovered and are Kaymakli Derinkuyu, 20 and 30 kms. south of Nevsehir Nevsehir-Nigde road. It is believed that the Hittites may have excavated the lower levels in the rock, when they were attacked by the Phrygians about 1200 BC. However, some archaeologists believe that the oldest caves, hewn stones instead of metal tools, they are much older. These rooms were later extended to a complex of caves, most Christians who fled the Arab invasions of the century 7 and 8.
The digital inputs cracks to develop rail systems with ventilators, waste pits, wells, chimneys and connection time. The upper levels were used for housing, while lower levels were used for storage, wine making, flour milling and worship in the chapels simple. Everywhere the walls were blackened by the use of torches. There is a tunnel linking Kaymakli Derinkuyu and allowing three people to go through together, but it is not accessible to the public through the tunnel collapsed.
Just 10 kms. Kaymakli east is another cavetown in Mazikoy that can connect to Derinkuyu but this has not been demonstrated. This community was built within the walls of a cliff. Unlike Kaymakli and Derinkuyu, there are no steps or grades that go from one level to another. Instead, different levels are well defined with connecting tunnels through which people came and left through footholds carved into the walls of the shafts. Mazikoy is often ignored because it is a smaller community, its location is off the main road and some flexibility is required to fully appreciate its features.
Rock Cut Churches and Monasteries
Many settlements in Cappadocia settled mainly in monastic communities. Mazaca As Bishop of Caesarea in the fourth century, St. Basil the Great wrote the rules for monastic life that are still followed by monks and nuns of the Greek Orthodox Church. Advocated community life, prayer and physical work instead of solitary asceticism that was popular at the time and was under his direction that the first churches were built in the Valley of Goreme. Here, a series of small communities with their own churches formed the large monastic complex is now open air museum. Hundreds of churches are reported to have been built in this valley, but are not churches in the time of St. Basil. In Goreme, the Kilise Tokali or “Church of the buckle is easily the most beautiful churches with graceful arches and beautiful frescos.
The impressive monastery in Cappadocia is the Monastery Eskigumus east of Nigde of Kayseri-Nigde highway. It is the southernmost of the monasteries of Cappadocia and is near the route taken by the Arab invaders who crosses the mountains of Tarsus in the south to plunder Kayseri, in the seventh century. This route follows the river from Tarsus through a steep gorge called Bogazi Gulek. He was known in the ancient world as Cicilia doors and was used by Alexander the Great in his campaign to the east against the Persians. The nondescript entrance to the Monastery Eskigumus was designed to protect the monastery complex of the invaders that happens. It was so successful that the monastery was not discovered until 1963, after having escaped the vandalism to which many of the churches of Cappadocia and monasteries were subjected. The large inner courtyard with high walls, surrounded by the monastic rooms and storage rooms. The church is spacious and airy, and well-preserved frescoes are considered the best example of Byzantine art in all of Cappadocia.
Near Uchisar is a valley that has become quite popular with hikers. Is known by many names (Valley of the pigeon, Dovecote Valley, Paloma Valley), but they all refer to the thousands of pigeon houses that have been dug into the soft tufa since antiquity. Although you can find over Cappadocia, which are particularly abundant in this valley must have one of the greatest collections of pigeon in the world. Were carved where space permits including abandoned caves and walls of the church collapsed. They lack the architectural interest of the doocots of Scotland or the towers of the Persian develop dove, but their absolute numbers are impressive. In Cappadocia, pigeons have long been a source of food and fertilizer. The advent of chemical fertilizers has reduced fertilizer use dove. However, some farmers still keep their lofts because they insist that the reputation of the fruits of Cappadocia as the sweetest and most succulent in Turkey is due entirely to pigeon droppings. “
The best time to go:
Cappadocia is generally cooler than the popular areas of the coast of the Mediterranean and the Aegean. From April to mid-June and September to October are the best months to avoid the intense heat and crowds of summer.
Turkey is an excellent service buses and dolmus (minibus). Bus service is available to Cappadocia from Istanbul, Ankara, and major cities of Turkey. delivery points vary by city of origin to take a bus from where you can find any destination in Cappadocia is available then use a taxi or the dolmus service to reach people who may want to visit.
Travel agents in major cities of Turkey offer tours to Cappadocia. If time is a problem and have no other options for visiting the area, it is best to take the tour instead of giving to the region, but be aware of the limitations of such trips, a propensity to spend too much time carpet shops.
The main airport in Kayseri region and there are regular flights from Istanbul by Turkish Airlines (THY). Buses are available from the airport to the otogar in Kayseri Erkilet. Argeus Tours (tel. 90-384-214-2800) has a shuttle service from the airport to Goreme and Urgup.
Clothing / Equipment:
Modest clothing season suggested for visits to Cappadocia. Immodest clothing for women (shorts, short skirts, tank tops, tight clothing) still invites unwanted attention in this conservative region, especially in villages less crowded. Long pants are recommended for those wishing to explore caves as some tracking may be necessary and the tufa surfaces can be quite difficult. Be sure to wear a brimmed hat, sunscreen and comfortable shoes.
When traveling in Turkey, is a good idea for women to wear a long skirt, light sweater and a nice shawl. Can quickly be slipped into more casual clothing to dress for dinner or to be dressed appropriately for visiting mosques.
Those planning to visit other areas of Turkey should consider flying as the distances are so great between different areas of interest. Bus travel within Turkey is easy and cheap. No smoking, but this is not always realistic, especially on long trips.
It is easy to navigate the main areas of Cappadocia by dolmus service which is cheap and offers regular tours. However, the service to areas with low traffic is sporadic and not always convenient. A variety of day tours are offered by numerous local travel companies at a cost of about $ 75 – $ 100 per person per day. It is better to rent your own car or rent a car and driver. The car rental price $ 60 – $ 100 per day and the cost of hiring a car and drive around $ 75 – $ 125 per day. The development of a small group to make this option more profitable. Avis has an office in Urgup (tel. 90-384-341-2177), while local companies hire car or a car and driver can be found by your hotel.
Hotel rates excellent Aegean coast does not extend to Cappadocia where hotels modern, Western-style exist but are much more expensive. Fortunately, there is a good selection of reasonably priced pensions and small hotels, some of which offer unique accommodations, such as caves and monasteries converted. Restaurants are plentiful and if you can not read the menu, we invite you to look into the pots to make your selection.
Assign more than two or three days to experience this unique area.
Konya is included in your itinerary of Cappadocia. It was once known as Iconium under the Romans and later became the capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. The best examples of Seljuk architecture and the handwriting can be viewed here.
The culture of rural Turkey is conservative for modesty and good manners are always appreciated.
Be sure to stay hydrated and maintain a pace in the summer as the heat can be very fierce.
Try to vary your activities. Unless you are a specialist in Byzantium, visiting the rock cut church of 50 years on the same day becomes a blur.
Worth exploring the area around Guzelyurt. Particularly interesting is the nearby Kilise Kizil (Red Church), a sixth century cruciform church with a dome located on top of an unusual structure, octagonal. This graceful church, little is constructed from red trachyte, a type of volcanic rock.
Do not visit the rock fortress of Ortahisar, spectacular Devrent Valley, the lush Valle Soganli and other well known sites. These areas have not been mentioned only because substantial information is already provided in most guidebooks.
Buy a good road map before leaving home. They are hard to find in Turkey, especially outside major cities.